Journal of Environment Pollution and Human Health
ISSN (Print): 2334-3397 ISSN (Online): 2334-3494 Website: http://www.sciepub.com/journal/jephh Editor-in-chief: Dibyendu Banerjee
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Journal of Environment Pollution and Human Health. 2014, 2(3), 69-73
DOI: 10.12691/jephh-2-3-3
Open AccessArticle

Health Risk Posed by Lead, Copper and Iron via Consumption of Organ Meats in Kampala City (Uganda)

Patrick Ogwok1, , Michael Bamuwamye2, Grace Apili1 and Juliet Hatoho Musalima1

1Department of Food Technology, Faculty of Science, Kyambogo University, Kyambogo, Kampala, Uganda

2Ministry of Health, Natural Chemotherapeutics Research Institute (NCRI), Kampala, Uganda

Pub. Date: August 28, 2014

Cite this paper:
Patrick Ogwok, Michael Bamuwamye, Grace Apili and Juliet Hatoho Musalima. Health Risk Posed by Lead, Copper and Iron via Consumption of Organ Meats in Kampala City (Uganda). Journal of Environment Pollution and Human Health. 2014; 2(3):69-73. doi: 10.12691/jephh-2-3-3

Abstract

Organ meat is a good source of protein, and some organs, notably the liver and kidney, are rich in vital minerals. In less developed countries, it is highly consumed because of tradition and being inexpensive. However, organ meats may contain high levels of heavy metals. The major objective of this study was to assess the level of risk posed to consumers by lead (Pb), copper (Cu) and iron (Fe) via the consumption of organ meats in Kampala City. Beef, goat and chicken liver, kidney, rumen, intestine, and chicken gizzard from five major markets in Kampala were assessed for levels of Pb, Cu and Fe. The heavy metal content was determined by flame and furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Target Hazard Quotient (THQ) was used in health risk assessment to determine carcinogenicity of the samples. The concentration of heavy metals ranged from 0.04 to 1.11 mg/kg for lead; 3.5 x 10-4 to 0.66 mg/kg for copper, and 26.20 to 41.00 mg/kg for iron. The level of lead in the liver, kidney, rumen, intestine and gizzard was higher than the maximum recommended limit (0.5 mg/kg wet weight) according to EFSA. A health risk analysis based on the THQ yielded a value >1 for lead in beef and goat liver and kidney, and goat intestine, and 0.99 in chicken liver. This suggests that consumers would possibly experience significant risk from the consumption of lead through these organs. Regular consumption of offal in Kampala may therefore cause deleterious effects during a lifetime in humans most especially for children and women of child bearing age.

Keywords:
Animal offal health risk heavy metal

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