Journal of Environment Pollution and Human Health
ISSN (Print): 2334-3397 ISSN (Online): 2334-3494 Website: http://www.sciepub.com/journal/jephh Editor-in-chief: Dibyendu Banerjee
Open Access
Journal Browser
Go
Journal of Environment Pollution and Human Health. 2014, 2(3), 58-62
DOI: 10.12691/jephh-2-3-1
Open AccessArticle

Nutrient Removal Efficiency of Activated Sludge Plants Treating Industrial and Municipal Wastewater in Ghana

Melvin-Guy Adonadaga1,

1Department of Biotechnology for Water Treatment, Faculty of Environmental Sciences and Process Engineering, Brandenburg University of Technology, Cottbus, Germany

Pub. Date: August 17, 2014

Cite this paper:
Melvin-Guy Adonadaga. Nutrient Removal Efficiency of Activated Sludge Plants Treating Industrial and Municipal Wastewater in Ghana. Journal of Environment Pollution and Human Health. 2014; 2(3):58-62. doi: 10.12691/jephh-2-3-1

Abstract

Discharge of untreated or poorly treated wastewater constitutes a major source of organic compounds to surface water posing serious threats to ecology and human health. The nutrient removal efficiency of three full-scale conventional activated sludge plants treating municipal and industrial wastewater in Ghana was investigated using standard methods. Industrial wastewater treatment plant had generally higher nitrogen removal efficiency (high as 75%) compared to municipal wastewater treatment plants (21%), with no significant differences in removal efficiency observed for phosphorus. However phosphorus removal efficiency was significantly higher (p-value = 0.005) in the wet season than dry season. A strong correlation between nutrient levels for the various plants was observed, with municipal wastewater plants recording generally higher levels. Effluent total nitrogen (TN) values ranged between 16.5 and 53.8mg/L and 29.4 and 71.5 mg/L for the wet and dry seasons respectively, with total phosphorus (TP) values also ranging between 3.23 and 6.57 mg/L and 6.3 and 15.8mg/L respectively. The effluent quality guideline value for nitrogen was missed by one of the municipal plants while all plants missed that of phosphorus. On the basis of these results, there is need for modifications to existing activated sludge plants in Ghana to improve their nutrient removal efficiency.

Keywords:
water pollution nutrient removal activated sludge process

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

References:

[1]  Zhang, X., X. Li, Q. Zhang, Q. Peng, W. Zhang, and F. Gao, “New insight into the biological treatment by activated sludge: the role of adsorption process.,” Bioresour. Technol., vol. 153, pp. 160-4, Feb. 2014.
 
[2]  Horan, N., Handbook of Water and Wastewater Microbiology. Elsevier, 2003.
 
[3]  Sedlak, R.Ed., Phosphorus and Nitrogen Removal from Municipal Wastewater: Principles and Practice, 3rd editio. New York: Soap and Detergent Association, 1991.
 
[4]  Bermúdez-Couso, A., D. Fernández-Calviño, M. A. Álvarez-Enjo, J. Simal-Gándara, J. C. Nóvoa-Muñoz, and M. Arias-Estévez, “Pollution of surface waters by metalaxyl and nitrate from non-point sources.,” Sci. Total Environ., vol. 461-462, pp. 282-9, Sep. 2013.
 
[5]  Statham, P. J., “Nutrients in estuaries--an overview and the potential impacts of climate change.,” Sci. Total Environ., vol. 434, pp. 213-27, Sep. 2012.
 
[6]  Douagui, A. G., I. K. Kouame, K. Koffi, A. T. B. Goula, B. Dibi, D. L. Gone, K. Coulibaly, A. M. Seka, A. K. Kouassi, J. M. Oi Mangoua, and I. Savane, “Assessment of the bacteriological quality and nitrate pollution risk of Quaternary groundwater in the southern part of Abidjan District (Côte d’Ivoire),” J. Hydro-environment Res., vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 227-238, Sep. 2012.
 
[7]  Schram, E., J. a. C. Roques, T. van Kuijk, W. Abbink, J. van de Heul, P. de Vries, S. Bierman, H. van de Vis, and G. Flik, “The impact of elevated water ammonia and nitrate concentrations on physiology, growth and feed intake of pikeperch (Sander lucioperca),” Aquaculture, vol. 420-421, pp. 95-104, Jan. 2014.
 
[8]  WHO, “Nitrate and nitrite in drinking-water: Background document for development of WHO guidelines for drinkingwater quality. Electronic resource available at /http://www. who.int/water_sanitation_health/dwq/chemicals/nitratenitrite 2ndadd.pdfS,” 2007. [Online]. Available: /http://www. who.int/water_sanitation_health/dwq/chemicals/nitratenitrite 2ndadd.pdfS.
 
[9]  Fan, A. M., C. Environmental, and P. Agency, “Nitrate and Nitrite in Drinking Water: A Toxicological Review,” 2011.
 
[10]  Gatseva P. D. and M. D. Argirova, “High-nitrate levels in drinking water may be a risk factor for thyroid dysfunction in children and pregnant women living in rural Bulgarian areas.,” Int. J. Hyg. Environ. Health, vol. 211, no. 5-6, pp. 555-9, Oct. 2008.
 
[11]  Chen W., H. Tong, and H. Liu, “Effects of nitrate on nitrite toxicity to Microcystis aeruginosa.,” Mar. Pollut. Bull., vol. 64, no. 6, pp. 1106-11, Jun. 2012.
 
[12]  WHO, “progress on sanitation and drinking-water; 2013 update,” 2013.
 
[13]  World Bank Group, “vulnerability, risk reduction and adaptation to climate change, Ghana; country profile.,” 2011.
 
[14]  Tadesse D. and I. S. S. Paper, “Th e impact of climate change in Africa,” no. November, 2010.
 
[15]  Vörösmarty, C. J.“Geospatial indicators of emerging water stress: an application to Africa,” Ambio, vol. 34, no. 3, pp. 230-236, 2005.
 
[16]  Müller, C. Climate Change Impact on Sub-Saharan Africa? 2009.
 
[17]  Andreen, W. L., “Developing a more holistic approach to water management in the United States.,” Environ. Law Rep., no. 36, pp. 10277-10289, 2006.
 
[18]  Adonadaga, M. “Climate Change Effects and Implications for Wastewater Treatment Options in Ghana,” J. Environ. Earth Sci., vol. 4, no. 8, pp. 9-18, 2014.
 
[19]  Mielczarek, A. T., C. Kragelund, P. S. Eriksen, and P. H. Nielsen, “Population dynamics of filamentous bacteria in Danish wastewater treatment plants with nutrient removal.,” Water Res., vol. 46, no. 12, pp. 3781-95, Aug. 2012.
 
[20]  Guo, J., Y. Peng, Z. Wang, Z. Yuan, X. Yang, and S. Wang, “Control filamentous bulking caused by chlorine-resistant Type 021N bacteria through adding a biocide CTAB.,” Water Res., vol. 46, no. 19, pp. 6531-42, Dec. 2012.
 
[21]  Guo, J., S. Wang, Z. Wang, and Y. Peng, “Effects of feeding pattern and dissolved oxygen concentration on microbial morphology and community structure: The competition between floc-forming bacteria and filamentous bacteria,” J. Water Process Eng., Apr. 2014.
 
[22]  Martins, A. M. P., K. Pagilla, J. J. Heijnen, and M. C. M. van Loosdrecht, “Filamentous bulking sludge--a critical review.,” Water Res., vol. 38, no. 4, pp. 793-817, Feb. 2004.
 
[23]  Shrimali M., and K. P. Singh, “New methods of nitrate removal from water.,” Environ. Pollut., vol. 112, no. 3, pp. 351-9, Jan. 2001.
 
[24]  Xu, S., D. Wu, and Z. Hu, “Impact of hydraulic retention time on organic and nutrient removal in a membrane coupled sequencing batch reactor.,” Water Res., vol. 55, pp. 12-20, May 2014.
 
[25]  Tandukar, M., Ohashi, and H. Harada, “Performance comparison of a pilot-scale UASB and DHS system and activated sludge process for the treatment of municipal wastewater.,” Water Res., vol. 41, no. 12, pp. 2697-705, Jun. 2007.
 
[26]  APHA, Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater,, Twentienth. Washington, 1998.
 
[27]  Cataldo, V. L., D. A., Maroon, M., Schrader, L. E., & Youngs, “Rapid colorimetric determination of nitrate in plant tissue by nitration of salicylic acid.,” Soil Sci Plant Anal., pp. 71-80, 1975.
 
[28]  Kargi F. and A. Uygur, “Nutrient removal performance of a sequencing batch reactor as a function of the sludge age,” Enzyme Microb. Technol., vol. 31, no. 6, pp. 842-847, Nov. 2002.
 
[29]  Bungay, T., S., Humphries, M., & Stephenson, “Operating strategies for variable flow sequencing batch reactors.,” Water Environ. J., vol. 21, pp. 1-8, 2007.
 
[30]  Hashimoto, K., M. Matsuda, D. Inoue, and M. Ike, “Bacterial community dynamics in a full-scale municipal wastewater treatment plant employing conventional activated sludge process.,” J. Biosci. Bioeng., vol. xx, no. xx, Jan. 2014.
 
[31]  M. T. H. van Vliet and J. J. G. Zwolsman, “Impact of summer droughts on the water quality of the Meuse river,” J. Hydrol., vol. 353, no. 1-2, pp. 1-17, May 2008.
 
[32]  Figuerola, L., E.L., Erijman, “Diversity of nitrifying bacteria in a full-scale petroleum refinery wastewater treatment plant experiencing unstable nitrification.,” J. Hazard. Matererials, no. 181, pp. 281-288, 2010.
 
[33]  Wang, Y., Y. Peng, and T. Stephenson, “Effect of influent nutrient ratios and hydraulic retention time (HRT) on simultaneous phosphorus and nitrogen removal in a two-sludge sequencing batch reactor process.,” Bioresour. Technol., vol. 100, no. 14, pp. 3506-12, Jul. 2009.
 
[34]  Asadi, A., a a L. Zinatizadeh, and S. Sumathi, “Simultaneous removal of carbon and nutrients from an industrial estate wastewater in a single up-flow aerobic/anoxic sludge bed (UAASB) bioreactor.,” Water Res., vol. 46, no. 15, pp. 4587-98, Oct. 2012.