Journal of Environment Pollution and Human Health
ISSN (Print): 2334-3397 ISSN (Online): 2334-3494 Website: Editor-in-chief: Dibyendu Banerjee
Open Access
Journal Browser
Journal of Environment Pollution and Human Health. 2014, 2(1), 12-15
DOI: 10.12691/jephh-2-1-3
Open AccessArticle

Domestic Water Source, Sanitation and High Risk of Bacteriological Diseases in the Urban Slum: Case of Cholera in Makoko, Lagos, Nigeria

Ayeni A. O.1,

1Department of Geography, University of Lagos, Akoka – Yaba, Lagos, Nigeria

Pub. Date: January 05, 2014

Cite this paper:
Ayeni A. O.. Domestic Water Source, Sanitation and High Risk of Bacteriological Diseases in the Urban Slum: Case of Cholera in Makoko, Lagos, Nigeria. Journal of Environment Pollution and Human Health. 2014; 2(1):12-15. doi: 10.12691/jephh-2-1-3


This study assesses the cholera incidence in urban slum in Lagos State, Nigeria with the emphasis on high risk of unimproved sources of water for domestic use and unsanitary environment. The study uses sets of one hundred and twenty structured guided questionnaires were randomly administered to obtain information on residents’ opinions and experiences on the risk and incidence of cholera in the area. Ten water samples were spatially collected from storage containers of the residents for microbial assessment Results of social survey instrument showed there was cholera incidence and the area is still at high risk as revealed from the result of coliform bacilli with high most probable number (MPN) count found in 6 of the 16 sampled water as well as the faecal coliform found virtually in all sampled water. The study concluded that increasing population of urban centres has been a major contributor to the unsanitary environmental, continuous use of unimproved sources of water as well as environmental health problems such as slum cholera risk and incidence. Therefore, for sustainable friendly and free diseases’ environment provision of habitable and conducive environment for the slum residents should be the priority of government.

unimproved water unsanitary cholera incidence urban slum

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit


Figure of 6


[1]  National Daily Newspaper, Makoko slum dwellers at high risk of epidemic, 2013., accessed on the 26/03/2013.
[2]  Cohen, R. “Nigerian Slum's Filth Is a World Away From Capital's Glitter”. The New York Times July 20, 1998.
[3]  Hauri, D., Parcel, T. L. & Hauri, R. J. The Impact of Homeownership on Child Outcomes. Low Income Homeownership Working Paper Series. Joint Centre for Housing Studies, Harvard University, 2001.
[4]  Aluko, O. Housing and Urban Development in Nigeria. Ibadan, Nigeria. Kins Publication, 2004.
[5]  Gambo, Y. L., Idowu, O. B. & Anyakora, I. M. Impact of Poor Housing Condition on the Economy of the Urban Poor: Makoko, Lagos State in View. Journal of Emerging Trends in Economics and Management Sciences 3(4): 302-307, 2012.
[6]  Barua, D., History of cholera. In: Barua D, Greenough W III, editors. Cholera. New York.Plenum; p. 1-36, 1992.
[7]  Prüss, A. Kay, D. Fewtrell, L. & Bartram J., Estimating the Burden of Disease from Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene at a Global Level. Environmental Health Perspectives, 110(5): 537-542, 2002.
[8]  Hutton, G. & Haller, L. Evaluation of the Costs and Benefits of Water and Sanitation Improvements at the Global Level, Water, Sanitation and Health Protection of the Human Environment World Health Organization Geneva 2004.
[9]  Mehrabi T. A. Fallah, Z. & Ataee, R. A. Is Cholera Outbreak Related to Climate Factors? Report of Seven Year Study from 21th March 1998-to 21th March 2004 in Iran. Journal of Medical Sciences, 6: 480-483, 2006.
[10]  Jonaidi J. N., Radfar, M. H. Ghofrani H. & Masoumi H. asl, Epidemiological and Bacteriological Features of the Cholera Outbreak in Iran (2005). Journal of Medical Sciences, 7: 645-649, 2007.
[11]  Jordan, W. T. & Tauxe, R. V. Lessons Learned During Public Health Response to Cholera Epidemic in Haiti and the Dominican Republic. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 17(11):2087-2093, 2011.
[12]  Barve, S. Javadekar, T. B. Nanda, S. Pandya, C. Pathan A. & Chavda, P. Isolation of Vibrio Cholera O1 during an Outbreak of Acute Gastroenteritis in Dahod District, Gujarat. National Journal of Community Medicine 3(1): 104-107, 2012.
[13]  WHO. Prevention and control of cholera outbreaks: WHO policy and recommendations 2013. Accessed on 26/03/2013.
[14]  Oxford Economic. Economic impact of a cholera epidemic on Mozambique and Bangladesh Economic impact of a cholera epidemic June 2010 Sepúlveda et al., 2005.
[15]  Sepúlveda J, Valdespino, J, & Garcia-Garcia, L. Cholera in Mexico: the paradoxical benefits of the last pandemic. Int J Infect Dis. 2006; 10(1): 4-13.
[16]  Gaffga, N. H. Tauxe, R. V. & Mintz, E. D. Cholera: a new homeland in Africa? Am J Trop Med Hyg. 77:705-13, 2007.
[17]  Githeko, A. Health, Climate Change and Climate Variability–Exploring the Future, Kisumu, Kenya, 1998. Accessed on the 13/03/2011.
[18]  Cutler, D. & Miller, G. The role of public health improvements in health advances: the twentieth-century United States. Demography, 42:1-22, 2005doi:10.1353/dem. 2005.
[19]  This Day. “Makoko Residents Andand Their Unwanted Guest”. Africa News May 1, 2009.
[20]  Yadua, O., Determinants of Urban Poor Housing Types in Makoko Area, Lagos, Journal of Sustainable Development in Africa, 14(6): 71-83, 2012.
[21]  WHO Guidelines for drinking water quality 3rd ed. World Health Organisation, Geneva, pp. 540, 2004, Accessed on 30/03/2012.