Journal of Environment Pollution and Human Health
ISSN (Print): 2334-3397 ISSN (Online): 2334-3494 Website: http://www.sciepub.com/journal/jephh Editor-in-chief: Dibyendu Banerjee
Open Access
Journal Browser
Go
Journal of Environment Pollution and Human Health. 2020, 8(2), 98-110
DOI: 10.12691/jephh-8-2-7
Open AccessArticle

Heavy Metals Geochemistry and Pollution Status of Coastal Sediments in Ayetoro Area, Southwestern Nigeria

Olusiji Samuel Ayodele1, and Idowu Victor Ayodeji2

1Department of Applied Geology, The Federal University of Technology Akure, Nigeria

2Department of Marine Science and Technology, The Federal University of Technology Akure, Nigeria

Pub. Date: September 03, 2020

Cite this paper:
Olusiji Samuel Ayodele and Idowu Victor Ayodeji. Heavy Metals Geochemistry and Pollution Status of Coastal Sediments in Ayetoro Area, Southwestern Nigeria. Journal of Environment Pollution and Human Health. 2020; 8(2):98-110. doi: 10.12691/jephh-8-2-7

Abstract

Coastal sediments from Ayetoro, South-western Nigeria were systematically sampled and analysed for their heavy metals concentration. Fifteen costal sediment samples were taken using a Vanveen grab at sampling thickness and density of 10cm and 100 m respectively, while the depth of sampling was determined using single point Echo sounder. The heavy metals analysed were Cadmium (Cd), Lead (Pb), Copper (Cu), Nickel (Ni), Iron (Fe), Manganese (Mn) and Zinc (Zn) with Model 210 VGP Buck Scientific Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. The results showed that the respective locations are contaminated with metals from both geogenic and anthropogenic sources. SS15 (Eyin-more) is shown to be very strongly polluted with Cd and Pb whereas, PLI values of 1.06, 1.10 and 2,76 indicates that SS1, SS6 and SS16 have very high level of metal toxicity while other locations remain unpolluted. The average concentration of the heavy metals range from Fe with the highest concentration (15313.05 - 38399.11) mg/kg, followed by Pb (17.94-165.57) mg/kg; Zn (28.81-125.59) mg/kg; Cu (16.73-112.59) mg/kg, Cd (0.05-22.75) mg/kg and Ni (3.75-17.96) mg/kg with the lowest concentration. The average Enrichment Factor values showed that Cd and Pb has significant enrichment (7.67 and 5.71), followed by Cu, Ni, Zn having deficiency to minimal enrichment (1.31, 0.17, 1.02) whereas Cd and Pb is significantly enriched in all locations. This could be as a result of oil pollution from exploration and exploitation activities, improper waste disposal and industrial effluents which can result to brain damage, increasing the biological oxygen demand (BOD) of living organisms in the sea, destruction of the ecosystem and their food chain and web relationships, infant mortality as well as pollution of domestic and portable water sources. The dominance of Fe-Zn-Pb-Ni metal associations signified zinc ores or massive sulphide mineralization in the studied area. The coastal town of Ayetoro should be given more attention in terms of Environmental Safety Enforcement by the government.

Keywords:
Ayetoro coastal sediments heavy metals pollution status mineralization

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

References:

[1]  Adeyemo, T., Ojewumi, O., Akinwumi, I. (2015). “Health related quality of life and perception of Stigmatization in adolescents living with sickle cell disease in Nigeria” in A cross-sectional study: HRQoL of Nigerian Adolescents. Paediatric and Cancer 62 (7).
 
[2]  Ademoroti, C.M.A. Standard methods for water and effluent analysis. Foludex Press Limited, Ibadan, 1996, 420p.
 
[3]  Agagu, O.K., Fayose, E.A., Peters, S.W. Stratigraphy and Sedimentation in the Senonian Anambra Basin of Eastern Nigeria. Journal of Mining & Geology 22(1): 25-36, 1985.
 
[4]  Agbozu, I.E., Ekweozor, I.K.E., Opuene, K. (). Survey of heavy metals in the catfish Synodontis Clarias. International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology 4(1): 93-97, 2007.
 
[5]  Angulo, J.C. Monotonicity Properties of the atomic charge density function. International Journal of Quantum Chemistry 58 (1): 1-119, 1996.
 
[6]  Augustine A.C. Chemical Assessment of Heavy Metals Contaminated Soil: A Re-view of Evaluation Indices. American Journal of Environmental Protection. 7(2): 34-40, 2019.
 
[7]  APHA. Standard method of examination of water and wastewater. American Public Health Association. Washington, DC, 19th edition, 1995.
 
[8]  Ayodele O.S, Henry Y.M, Fatoyinbo I.M. Heavy Metals Concentration and Pollution Assessment of the Beach Sediments in Lagos, Southwestern Nigeria. SDRP Journal of Earth Sciences & Environmental Studies. 4(2): 567- 578, 2019.
 
[9]  Buzzi, N.S., Marcovecchio, J. Heavy metal concentrations in sediments and in mussels from Argentinean coastal environments, South America. Environmental Earth Sciences (Springer) 77(8), 2018.
 
[10]  Daramola J.O., Adekunle M.F., Olaniyi, M.O., and Alaska, F.M. Ondo state Diagnostics Survey Report: Institute of Food Security. Environmental Resource and Agricultural Research University of Agriculture; 978-978-5009, 1-7, 2010.
 
[11]  Dunne, T. and Leopold, L. B. Water in Environmental planning. W. H. Freeman and Company, New York. 1978, 814p.
 
[12]  Elewa, A. A., Sayyah, S. M., and Foudah, A. Distribution of pollutants in Lake Nasser and River Nile at Aswan. Regional Symposia of Environmental Studies. El-Raey M. (ed), Alexandria. 1990, 18-23.
 
[13]  Kayastha S.P. Heavy metals Fractionation in Bagmati River Sediments, Nepal. Journal of Hydrology and Meteorology, 9: 119-128, 2015.
 
[14]  Li, Y., Hong, Y.T., Wang, D.J. and Zhu, Y.X. Determination of Free Heavy Metal Ion Concentrations in Soils around a Cadmium Rich Zinc Deposit. Geochemical Journal, 41, 235-240, 2007.
 
[15]  Mafolabomi M.W., Adeparusi, L.O. and Balogun, A.M. Water Parameters Ilaje Local Government Area, Ondo State. In: O.A. Fagbenro, O.T. Adebayo, L.O. Nwannas, A.A. Dada and M.O. Olufayo (Eds). Proceedings, 24th FISON Annual Conference October 25th -28th, Akure. 168-169, 2009.
 
[16]  Muller, G. Index of geo-accumulation in sediments of the Rhine River. Geosciences Journal. 2(3): 108-118, 1961.
 
[17]  Olorunlana, F.A. “Evaluation of Erodility Indices in Akoko Region of Ondo State, Nigeria. Global Journal of Biology and Health Sciences”. 2(2): 86-89, 2013.
 
[18]  Omoyoloye N.A., Oladapo M.I., Adeoye O.O. “Engineering Geophysical study of Adagbakuja Newtown Development, South-western Nigeria”. Online Journal of Earth Sciences, 2(2): 55-63, 2008.
 
[19]  Omosuyi, G.O., Ojo J.S. and Olorunfemi M.O. “Geo-electric sounding to delineate shallow aquifers in the Coastal Plains Sands of Okitipupa Area, Southwestern Nigeria”. Pacific Journal of Sciences and Technology. 9(2): 234-245, 2008.
 
[20]  Soltan, M. E. “Distribution of some heavy metals in sediments of Gomti River, India”. Delta Journal of Sciences, 18, 63-81, 1980.
 
[21]  Sutherland, R.A. Bed sediment-associated trace metals in an urban stream, Oahu, Hawail”, Environmental Geology. 39: 611-637, 1980.
 
[22]  Tomlinson, D.L., Wilson, J.G., Jeffery, D.W. Problems in the assessment of heavy-metal levels in estuaries and the formation of a pollution index. Environmental Evaluation, 33566-575, 1980.
 
[23]  Turekian, K.K., Wedepohl, K.H. (1961). “Distribution of the Elements in Some Major Units of the Earth’s Crust”. Geological Society of America Bulletin, 72[175: DOTEIS]2.0. CO; 2.
 
[24]  Walter, J.S., Maylo, M. “The Morphology and Sediment Characteristics of the Coast-line of Nigeria: The Niger Delta”. Journal of Coastal Research. 10 (4): 959-977, 1994.
 
[25]  Wedepohl, K.H. Environmental Influences on the chemical composition of Shales and clays. Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, 1971, 8: 37-333.