Journal of Environment Pollution and Human Health
ISSN (Print): 2334-3397 ISSN (Online): 2334-3494 Website: http://www.sciepub.com/journal/jephh Editor-in-chief: Dibyendu Banerjee
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Journal of Environment Pollution and Human Health. 2020, 8(1), 6-19
DOI: 10.12691/jephh-8-1-2
Open AccessArticle

Scarcity of Potable Water and Sanitation Facilities in the Endemic Cholera Region of North Cameroon

Wadoubé Zoua1, Moussa Djaouda2, , Justine Maïworé2, Song Liang3 and Moïse Nola4

1Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of Maroua, PO Box 46 Maroua, Cameroon

2Higher Teachers’ Training College, University of Maroua, PO Box 55 Maroua, Cameroon

3Department of Environmental and Global Health, College of Public Health and Health Professions, and Emerging Pathogens Institute, University of Florida, USA

4Laboratory of Hydrobiology and Environment, Department of Animal Biology and Physiology, Faculty of Science, University of Yaoundé I, PO Box 812 Yaoundé, Cameroon

Pub. Date: December 25, 2019

Cite this paper:
Wadoubé Zoua, Moussa Djaouda, Justine Maïworé, Song Liang and Moïse Nola. Scarcity of Potable Water and Sanitation Facilities in the Endemic Cholera Region of North Cameroon. Journal of Environment Pollution and Human Health. 2020; 8(1):6-19. doi: 10.12691/jephh-8-1-2

Abstract

In North Cameroon, cholera outbreaks regularly occur during the rainy season. Nevertheless, how the outbreak takes place and how the disease is spread in the region remain largely unknown. This study aimed to characterize quality of water sources and explore potential environmental reservoirs of the causative agent, Vibrio cholerae, and factors maintaining its persistence. Of the 33 water sources investigated, 5 (4 wells and 1 stream point) were positive for V. cholerae. The water provided from wells and stream points is unsafe for consumption with regard to microbial indicators. High-risk zones of cholera were identified which could be used to inform local risk. The household size was shown to be a significant risk factor for reported cholera cases (P<0.05). Use of uncontrolled quality water (from well and stream) was also found as a risk factor for cholera (P<0.001). This study showed that individuals who do not wash their hands with soap are most vulnerable to cholera risk (P<0.001). The use of chlorine treated water, improvement in sanitation structures and hygiene are possible solutions to reduce cholera outbreaks.

Keywords:
Vibrio cholerae reservoirs sanitation hygiene north Cameroon

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