Journal of Cancer Research and Treatment
ISSN (Print): 2374-1996 ISSN (Online): 2374-2003 Website: Editor-in-chief: Jean Rommelaere
Open Access
Journal Browser
Journal of Cancer Research and Treatment. 2017, 5(3), 100-104
DOI: 10.12691/jcrt-5-3-5
Open AccessReview Article

Multiple Myeloma: New Perspectives

Ahmed M. Kabel1, 2, , Nourah Alqahtani3, Rawan Alshehri3, Aminah Altalhi3 and Bashair Alqurashi3

1Department of Clinical Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, Taif University, Taif, KSA

2Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Tanta University, Tanta, Egypt

33Pharm D Student, College of Pharmacy, Taif University, Taif, KSA

Pub. Date: September 27, 2017

Cite this paper:
Ahmed M. Kabel, Nourah Alqahtani, Rawan Alshehri, Aminah Altalhi and Bashair Alqurashi. Multiple Myeloma: New Perspectives. Journal of Cancer Research and Treatment. 2017; 5(3):100-104. doi: 10.12691/jcrt-5-3-5


Multiple myeloma (MM) is the most common bone malignancy that occurs frequently in older persons. It is the second most common blood cancer in which the patient usually presents with bone pain, nausea, malaise, anemia, renal insufficiency and hypocalcaemia. There is a wide variety of risk factors that may predispose to MM. It is usually discovered on routine laboratory investigations and usually diagnosed with serum or urine protein electrophoresis or immunofixation and bone marrow aspirate analysis. MM often has bad prognosis, although advances in therapy resulted in significant improvement in the overall survival rate. This review sheds light on the incidence, etiology, clinical presentation, the methods of diagnosis, prognosis and the possible lines of management of MM.

multiple myeloma risk factors diagnosis management perspectives

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit


[1]  Al-Farsi K. Multiple Myeloma: An Update. Oman Medical Journal. 2013; 28(1): 3-11.
[2]  Laubach J, Richardson P, Anderson K. Multiple myeloma. Annu Rev Med. 2011; 62: 249-64.
[3]  Kumar SK, Callander NS, Alsina M, Atanackovic D, Biermann JS, Chandler JC, et al. Multiple Myeloma, Version 3. 2017, NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology. J Natl Compr Canc Netw. 2017; 15(2): 230-69.
[4]  Pingali SR, Haddad RY, Saad A. Current concepts of clinical management of multiple myeloma. Dis Mon. 2012; 58(4): 195-207.
[5]  Koura DT, Langston AA. Inherited predisposition to multiple myeloma. Therapeutic Advances in Hematology. 2013; 4(4): 291-7.
[6]  Sergentanis TN, Zagouri F, Tsilimidos G, Tsagianni A, Tseliou M, Dimopoulos MA, et al. Risk Factors for Multiple Myeloma: A Systematic Review of Meta-Analyses. Clin Lymphoma Myeloma Leuk. 2015; 15(10): 563-77.
[7]  Wallin A, Larsson SC. Body mass index and risk of multiple myeloma: a meta-analysis of prospective studies. Eur J Cancer. 2011; 47(11): 1606-15.
[8]  Rajkumar SV. Multiple myeloma: 2016 update on diagnosis, risk-stratification, and management. Am J Hematol. 2016; 91(7): 719-34.
[9]  Kyle RA, Rajkumar SV. Multiple myeloma. N. Engl. J. Med. 2004; 351 (18): 1860-73.
[10]  Tricot G. New insights into role of microenvironment in multiple myeloma. Lancet. 2000; 355 (9200): 248-50.
[11]  Fonseca R, Monge J. Myeloma: classification and risk assessment. Semin Oncol. 2013; 40(5): 554-66.
[12]  Fonseca R, Monge J, Dimopoulos MA. Staging and prognostication of multiple myeloma. Expert review of hematology. 2014; 7(1): 21-31.
[13]  Kyle R, Rajkumar S. Criteria for diagnosis, staging, risk stratification and response assessment of multiple myeloma. Leukemia: official journal of the Leukemia Society of America, Leukemia Research Fund, UK. 2009; 23(1):3-9.
[14]  Bergsagel PL, Chesi M. V. Molecular classification and risk stratification of myeloma. Hematol oncol. 2013; 31(0 1): 38-41.
[15]  Terpos E, Kleber M, Engelhardt M, et al. European Myeloma Network Guidelines for the Management of Multiple Myeloma-related Complications. Haematologica. 2015; 100(10): 1254-66
[16]  Gay F, Palumbo A. Management of disease- and treatment-related complications in patients with multiple myeloma. Med Oncol. 2010; 27 Suppl 1: S43-52.
[17]  Hameed A, Brady JJ, Dowling P, Clynes M, O’Gorman P. Bone Disease in Multiple Myeloma: Pathophysiology and Management. Cancer Growth and Metastasis. 2014;7: 33-42.
[18]  Sullivan E, Smith LC, Falco AM. Multiple Myeloma: Cast Nephropathy, VTE, and Neurologic Complications. J Adv Pract Oncol. 2013; 4(1): 37-46.
[19]  Gay F, Palumbo A. Multiple myeloma: management of adverse events. Med Oncol. 2010; 27(3): 646-53.
[20]  Eslick R, Talaulikar D. Multiple myeloma: from diagnosis to treatment. Aust Fam Physician. 2013; 42(10): 684-8.
[21]  Michels TC, Petersen KE. Multiple Myeloma: Diagnosis and Treatment. Am Fam Physician. 2017; 95(6): 373-83.
[22]  Gerecke C, Fuhrmann S, Strifler S, Schmidt-Hieber M, Einsele H, Knop S. The Diagnosis and Treatment of Multiple Myeloma. Dtsch Arztebl Int. 2016; 113(27-28): 470-6.
[23]  Rajkumar SV, Kumar S. Multiple Myeloma: Diagnosis and Treatment. Mayo Clin Proc. 2016; 91(1):101-19.
[24]  Kabel AM, Abd Elmaaboud MA. Cancer: Role of Nutrition, Pathogenesis, Diagnosis and Management. World Journal of Nutrition and Health 2014; 2(4): 48-51.
[25]  Munshi NC, Anderson KC. New strategies in the treatment of multiple myeloma. Clin Cancer Res. 2013; 19(13): 3337-44.
[26]  Mina R, Cerrato C, Bernardini A, Aghemo E, Palumbo A. New pharmacotherapy options for multiple myeloma. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2016; 17(2): 181-92.
[27]  Jasielec JK, Jakubowiak AJ. Current approaches to the initial treatment of symptomatic multiple myeloma. Int J Hematol Oncol. 2013; 2(1): 10.2217/ijh.13.3.
[28]  El-Amm J, Tabbara IA. Emerging therapies in multiple myeloma. Am J Clin Oncol. 2015; 38(3): 315-21.
[29]  Mohty M, Harousseau J-L. Treatment of autologous stem cell transplant-eligible multiple myeloma patients: ten questions and answers. Haematologica. 2014; 99(3): 408-16.
[30]  Bensinger W, Rotta M, Storer B, et al. Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation for Multiple Myeloma: A Review of Outcomes at a single Transplant Center. Bone marrow transplant. 2012; 47(10): 1312-7.
[31]  Torimoto Y, Shindo M, Ikuta K, Kohgo Y. Current therapeutic strategies for multiple myeloma. Int J Clin Oncol. 2015; 20(3): 423-30.
[32]  Zhang X, Chen W-W, Huang W-J. Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy. Biomed Rep. 2017; 6(3): 267-71.
[33]  Mewawalla P, Chilkulwar A. Maintenance therapy in multiple myeloma. Ther Adv Hematol. 2017; 8(2): 71-9.
[34]  Sonneveld P, Broijl A. Treatment of relapsed and refractory multiple myeloma. Haematologica. 2016; 101(4): 396-406.
[35]  Castelli R, Gualtierotti R, Orofino N, Losurdo A, Gandolfi S, Cugno M. Current and Emerging Treatment Options for Patients with Relapsed Myeloma. Clin Med Insights Oncol. 2013; 7: 209-19.
[36]  Cornell RF, Kassim AA. Evolving paradigms in the treatment of relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma: increased options and increased complexity. Bone Marrow Transplant. 2016; 51(4): 479-91.
[37]  Raza S, Safyan RA, Rosenbaum E, Bowman AS, Lentzsch S. Optimizing current and emerging therapies in multiple myeloma: a guide for the hematologist. Ther Adv Hematol. 2017; 8(2): 55-70.
[38]  Cömert M, Güneş AE, Şahin F, Saydam G. Quality of Life and Supportive Care in Multiple Myeloma. Turk J Haematol. 2013; 30(3): 234-46.
[39]  Kocoglu M, Badros A. The Role of Immunotherapy in Multiple Myeloma. Emadi A, Desai D, eds. Pharmaceuticals. 2016; 9(1): 3.
[40]  Neri P, Bahlis NJ, Lonial S. New Strategies in Multiple Myeloma: Immunotherapy as a Novel Approach to Treat Patients with Multiple Myeloma. Clin Cancer Res. 2016; 22(24): 5959-65.
[41]  Chung C. Role of Immunotherapy in Targeting the Bone Marrow Microenvironment in Multiple Myeloma: An Evolving Therapeutic Strategy. Pharmacotherapy. 2017; 37(1): 129-43.
[42]  Hanbali A, Hassanein M, Rasheed W, Aljurf M, Alsharif F. The Evolution of Prognostic Factors in Multiple Myeloma. Advances in Hematology 2017; 2017: 4812637.
[43]  Gupta A, Kumar L. Evolving role of high dose stem cell therapy in multiple myeloma. Indian J Med Paediatr Oncol. 2011; 32(1): 17-24.