Journal of Cancer Research and Treatment
ISSN (Print): 2374-1996 ISSN (Online): 2374-2003 Website: http://www.sciepub.com/journal/jcrt Editor-in-chief: Jean Rommelaere
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Journal of Cancer Research and Treatment. 2017, 5(2), 62-67
DOI: 10.12691/jcrt-5-2-4
Open AccessArticle

Acute Myeloid Leukemia: A focus on Risk Factors, Clinical Presentation, Diagnosis and Possible Lines of Management

Ahmed M. Kabel1, 2, , Ftoon Zamzami3, Manal Al-Talhi3, Khairiyah Al-Dwila3 and Reham Hamza3

1Department of Clinical Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, Taif University, Taif, KSA

2Pharmacology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Tanta University, Tanta, Egypt

3Final year student, College of Pharmacy, Taif University, Taif, KSA

Pub. Date: June 13, 2017

Cite this paper:
Ahmed M. Kabel, Ftoon Zamzami, Manal Al-Talhi, Khairiyah Al-Dwila and Reham Hamza. Acute Myeloid Leukemia: A focus on Risk Factors, Clinical Presentation, Diagnosis and Possible Lines of Management. Journal of Cancer Research and Treatment. 2017; 5(2):62-67. doi: 10.12691/jcrt-5-2-4

Abstract

The aim of this review was to shed light on the epidemiology, classification, possible risk factors, clinical presentation, diagnosis and possible lines of management of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). AML is one of the malignancies originating from the myeloid line of blood cells. It is characterized by rapid growth of abnormal white blood cells that build up in the bone marrow and interfere with production of normal blood cells. It is the most common acute leukemia affecting adults, and its incidence increases with age. Several risk factors and chromosomal abnormalities have been identified in AML. AML has several subtypes which determine the suitable lines of treatment and the overall prognosis. AML involves a high percentage of dedifferentiated and undifferentiated cells, including more myeloblasts, monoblasts and megakaryoblasts. Symptoms of AML are variable, including fatigue, shortness of breath, easy bruising and bleeding with increased risk of infections. AML is treated initially with chemotherapy to induce remission. Then, patients may receive additional chemotherapy or hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. In conclusion, AML is the most common type of acute leukemia in adults which is usually precipitated by mutations in the genes involved in hematopoietic proliferation and differentiation and its main lines of treatment remain combination of cytarabine- and anthracycline-based regimens with allogeneic stem cell transplantation for eligible patients.

Keywords:
myeloid leukemia risk factors diagnosis management

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