Journal of City and Development
ISSN (Print): ISSN Pending ISSN (Online): ISSN Pending Website: http://www.sciepub.com/journal/jcd Editor-in-chief: Guangming Yu
Open Access
Journal Browser
Go
Journal of City and Development. 2019, 1(1), 46-53
DOI: 10.12691/jcd-1-1-8
Open AccessArticle

Yard Farming in the City of Lubumbashi: Resident Perceptions of Home Gardens in Their Community

Arsene Mushagalusa Balasha1, , Benjamin B. Murhula2 and Dédé Mbangu Munahua3

1Unité de Recherche en Economie et Développement Agricoles, Faculté des Sciences Agronomiques, Université de Lubumbashi, PO Box 1825, Lubumbashi, DR Congo

2Departement d’Economie et Développement, Faculté des Sciences Economiques et de Gestion, Université de Lubumbashi, PO Box 1825, Lubumbashi, DR Congo

3Institut National Pour l’Etude et la Recherche Agronomique, BP 224, Station de Kipopo, DR Congo

Pub. Date: October 08, 2019

Cite this paper:
Arsene Mushagalusa Balasha, Benjamin B. Murhula and Dédé Mbangu Munahua. Yard Farming in the City of Lubumbashi: Resident Perceptions of Home Gardens in Their Community. Journal of City and Development. 2019; 1(1):46-53. doi: 10.12691/jcd-1-1-8

Abstract

Home gardens are an integral part of urban agriculture as well as a part of local food systems in many cities all over the world. Survey and observations were conducted in January and March 2016 among urban households to determine the home garden sizes, the type of fertilizers used, the crops grown and the resident perceptions of home gardens in the city of Lubumbashi, southeastern Democratic Republic of Congo. Results showed that 72% of the households owned a home garden with the mean size of 11.5 ± 6.4 m2. Crops grown included amaranth, okra, sorrel, sweet potato, corn as well as medicinal plants. All household members participated in gardening works but women played important roles by deciding and selecting the type of vegetables to grow. Home gardening is an expression of identity: - First, it contributes to household food security by providing a direct and permanent access to different type vegetables (83%), responding to the household food traditions.- Second, it strengthens the relationships between families and their neighbors by sharing vegetables. It helps also residents to save money spent for vegetables. -Third, a home garden is perceived as a place whereby agricultural traditions are conserved (14.7%) and where children are introduced to manual work (6.4%). Home gardens generate also few income used as a supplementary on household food budget. Crop intensification and good management can enable residential gardens contribute to food supply in the city of Lubumbashi where the demand for vegetables and fruits is important and increasing.

Keywords:
resident perceptions home garden vegetables food security Lubumbashi

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

References:

[1]  WHO, “Patterns and determinant of fruit and vegetable consumption in sub-Saharan Africa” Ruel T, Nicolas M, Lisa s. Background papers for the joint of FAO/WHO workshop on fruit and vegetables for health, 45 p, 2005.
 
[2]  Maunder E. and Meaker JL, “The current and potential contribution of home-grown vegetables to diets in South Africa”, Water SA 33(3). 401-406, 2007.
 
[3]  Katinka W and Swai, H, “Consumption of Traditional Vegetables in Central and Northeastern Tanzania”, Ecology of food and nutrition, 45(2) 87-103, Aug 2006.
 
[4]  Kamga R., Kouamé C. and Akyeampong E., “Vegetable consumption patterns in Yaoundé, Cameroon”. Afr. Jour of food, agr and nutr, 13 ( 2 ), 7399 -7414 ,Apr, 2013.
 
[5]  Ayieko M W, Tschirley D., and Mathenge M. “Fresh fruit and vegetable consumption patterns and supply chain systems in urban Kenya: implications for policy and investment priorities”. Working paper 19, Tegemeo Institute of Agricultural Policy and Development. 52p, Nairobi- Kenya, 2015.
 
[6]  Ganry J., “Current Status of Fruits and Vegetables Production and Consumption in Francophone African Countries - Potential Impact on Health”, Hort. 841, ISHS 249-256, 2009.
 
[7]  Bervoet W. et M. Lassance, “Modes et coutumes alimentaires des Congolais en milieu rural, Résultats d'une enquête portant sur le Congo belge et le Ruanda-Urundi à l'exclusion du Katanga”, p 98, 1959.
 
[8]  Ministère du plan de la RD Congo, monographie de la province du Katanga, 37p, 2005.
 
[9]  Lebailly P. and Muteba D., “Characteristics of Urban Food insecurity: The Case of Kinshasa”, African Review of economics and finance, 3 (1) 58-67, 2011.
 
[10]  Mushagalusa B., E.M. Kadiata, D.M. Mbangu et al. Consommation alimentaire à Mimbulu : description des unités de mesure et des modes alimentaires des ménages ruraux du Katanga”. Int. J.of Innovation and Sc. Res. 19 (2), 364-376 Dec. 2015.
 
[11]  Mushagalusa B., Lenga A., Muyeketa M. and Kahoma M., 2015 “Market Garden produce consumption in Lubumbashi: a comparison between two types of Cabbage”. International Journal of Innovation and Scientific Research, 15(1), 88-94.
 
[12]  Crush J., Hovorka A. and D. Tevera, “Urban Food Production and Household Food Security in Southern African Cities”. Urban Food Security Series No. 4. Queen’s University and AFSUN: Kingston and Cape Town. 2010.
 
[13]  Nyumbaiza T., “Urban agriculture, land and sustainability the case of Lubumbashi”, in Territoires périurbains’’ Développement, enjeux et perspectives dans les pays du Sud, Bogeart and Halleux, Ed : Les presses agronomiques de Gembloux. 304p, 2015.
 
[14]  Mubarak L., Ayobami P., Alaba A., Oluwatola A.Kayode B, “City Expansion and Agricultural Land Loss within the Peri-Urban Area of Osun State, Nigeria”, Ghana Journal of Geography 9(3) 132-163, 2017.
 
[15]  Mushagalusa B. and Kesonga N., ‘’Evaluation de la performance économique des exploitations de chou de Chine (Brassica chinensis L.) en maraîchage à Lubumbashi en République Démocratique du Congo’’, Rev. Afr. d’Env. et d’Agr., 2(1) 11-19, 2019.
 
[16]  Mubemba M, Useni S., Ntumba et al., Évaluation des teneurs en éléments traces métalliques dans les légumes feuilles vendus dans les différents marchés de la zone minière de Lubumbashi”, Journal of Applied Biosciences 66: 5106-5113, 2013.
 
[17]  Mpundu M, Useni S, Nyembo K, Colinet C. Effets d’amendements carbonatés et organiques sur la culture de deux légumes sur sol contaminé à Lubumbashi (RD Congo). Biotechnol. Agron. Soc. Environ. 18(3), 367-375, 2014.
 
[18]  Kesonga N., “Enquête sur l'usage des matières fertilisantes en agriculture urbaine et périurbaine de Lubumbashi, R D. Congo”. Master thesis, production intégrée et préservation des ressources naturelles en milieu urbain et périurbain, Gembloux Agro Bio-Tech/Belgique, 84 p, 2017.
 
[19]  Marsh R., “Building on traditional gardening to improve household food security”, FAO, Rome, 1998.
 
[20]  Lane L., “Livelihoods grow in gardens”, FAO, Rome, 2012.
 
[21]  Dilrukshi H. G., Russell F and Karim M., “Home gardens: a promising approach to enhance household food security and wellbeing”, Agriculture & Food Security, 2-13, 2013.
 
[22]  Agelet A, Maria A., Joan V., “Home gardens and their roles as a main source of medicinal plants in mountain region of Catalonia (I. Peniula)”, Economic botany 53(3) 295-309, 2000.
 
[23]  Action Against Hunger, Enquête nutritionnelle zones de sante de Kampemba, Katuba, Kenia, Kamalondo, Lubumbashi et Ruashi. District de Lubumbashi. Katanga, D R Congo 42p, May 1999.
 
[24]  Mushagalusa B., Kapalanga K., Ilunga K et al., ‘Genre et production des légumes dans les parcelles résidentielles dans une ville africaine: expérience de Lubumbashi en RD Congo. Int. J.Innov. and Sc. Research, 25 (2) 413-423 Jul. 2016.
 
[25]  Carney P., Hamada J., Rebecca R,. et al, Impact of a Community Gardening Project on Vegetable Intake, Food Security and Family Relationships: A Community-based Participatory Research Study”. J Community Health. 37(4): 874-881, August 2012.
 
[26]  Ghazali S. ,’’House Garden as a Symbol of Place, Identity and Sense of Belonging for Low-Cost Flat Residents in Urbanizing Malaysia’’ International Journal of Social Science and Humanity, Vol. 3, No. 2, 171-175. March 2013.
 
[27]  Imas A and Beilin R. “Community Gardens: Space for Interactions and Adaptations”. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 36, 439-448, 2012.
 
[28]  Schupp J. Exploring the social bases of home gardening, a thesis submitted at Ohio State University, USA, 136p, 2009.
 
[29]  Ruggeri G., Chiara M. and Stefano Corsi, “Urban Gardeners’ Motivations in a Metropolitan City: The Case of Milan” Sustainability (8): 2-9, 2016.
 
[30]  Trendov N. “Comparative study on the motivations that drive urban community gardens in Central Eastern Europe”. Annals of Agrarian Science. (16). 85-89, 2018.
 
[31]  Natural Learning Initiative Children’s vegetable garden: An introduction to the location, layout, construction & planting of raised garden beds. North Carolina State University, USA, 2015.
 
[32]  Nury E., Asia S., Coosje D., Jacob C. and Christine D., “Sowing Seeds for Healthier Diets: Children’s Perspectives on School Gardening”. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health, 14, 688; 2017.
 
[33]  Gautam R., B. Sthapit and P. Shrestha, “Home Gardens in Nepal: Proceeding of a workshop on “Enhancing the contribution of home garden to on-farm management of plant genetic resources and to improve the livelihoods of Nepalese farmers: Lessons learned and policy implications”, Pokhara, Nepal, Bioversity International and SDC 6-7, 2004.
 
[34]  Bongiwa M and A. Obi. Home gardening as a strategy for food security and poverty alleviation in low income households in South Africa, 2013.
 
[35]  FAO, Growing greener cities in Democratic Republic of Congo, 00153 Rome, Italy, p35, 2010.
 
[36]  Tshomba K, Nyembo M, Ntumba N, Mushagalusa B., Le maraîchage et ses fonctions dans le contexte socioéconomique de Lubumbashi en RD Congo”, Int. J In and Ap. Studies 11(2) 291-302, May 2015.
 
[37]  Nday F., Kalumbu J., Musaya E., Kirika A. and Nkulu J., “Le maraîchage et l’accès aux facteurs de production dans le contexte socio-économique de Lubumbashi”, Int. J. Innovation and Ap. Studies, 13(3), 527-537, 2015.
 
[38]  Nkuku C., Rémon M., “Stratégies de survie à Lubumbashi (R-D Congo). Enquête sur 14000 ménages urbains, Archive congolaise, Harmattan, Paris 2006.
 
[39]  Erens H., Boudin M., Mees F., Mujinya B., Baert G., Strydonck V. & Van Ranst E., The age of large termite mounds-radiocarbon dating of Macrotermes falciger mounds of the Miombo woodland of Katanga, DR Congo. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, (435) 265-271, 2015.
 
[40]  Useni, S., Marie, A., Mahy G., Cabala K., Malaisse F., Munyemba F., Bogaert.(2018). Interprétation paysagère du processus d’urbanisation à Lubumbashi : dynamique de la structure spatia le et suivi des indicateurs écologiques entre 2002 et 2008. In Bogaert J., Colinet G., Mahy G., 2018. Anthropisation des paysages katangais. Gembloux, Belgique: 281-296. Presses Universitaires de Liège – Agronomie-Gembloux.
 
[41]  OIM, “Migration en République Démocratique du Congo, profil national”, 2009.
 
[42]  Vogl-Lukasser B and Christian R. Ethno botanical Research in Home gardens of Small farmers in the Alpine Region of Osttirol. (Austria): An example for Bridges Built and Building Bridges; Research & Applications. (2): 111-137 (2004).
 
[43]  Balasha, B. Vumba, M. Muyambo, M. Kasanda, Nkulu J, “Production des cultures maraichères à Lubumbashi: analyse comparative de la rentabilité de chou pommé et chou de Chine”, Int. Journal of Inn. and Scientific Research (1), 55-61, 2015.
 
[44]  Bagson E. and A. N.Beyuo.Home gardening: the surviving food security strategy in the Nandom traditional area - upper west region Ghana, Journal of Sustainable Development in Africa ,Volume 14, No.1, 2012.
 
[45]  Karolin A.and H Katarina.Improving peri-urban home gardens in Hyderabad, India , Uppsala, Sweden, 2012.
 
[46]  Agbogidi, O.M. and B. Adolor, “Home gardens in the maintenance of biological diversity”, App. Sci. Rep. (1), 19-25, 2013.
 
[47]  GIZ, Home gardens –treasure troves of diversity, 2014.
 
[48]  Amber Mekonnen, Mekuria A, Zemede A. The role of home gardens for in situ conservation of biodiversity in Holeta Town, Oromia National Regional state, Ethiopia, International journal of biodiversity and conservation, 6(1), 8-16, 2014.
 
[49]  E Oakley. Home gardens: a cultural responsibility; 2004.
 
[50]  M Marguerie, “Diversification des cultures dans les exploitations maraîchères biologiques: conséquences sur les gestions agronomique et commerciale. Cas de la basse vallée de Durance” PACA. Master thesis, Montpellier super Agro, France,72p ,2011.
 
[51]  Sayma A., M. Alamgir, Md. Shawkat et al., The role of women in traditional farming systems as practiced in home gardens: a case study in SylhetSadar Upazila, Bangladesh Tropical Conservation Science , 3(1):17-30, 2010.
 
[52]  Sharmila D. Mohiuddin M., “Gender role in home garden management in the indigenous community: a case study in Bandar ban hill district, Bangladesh”, International Journal of Social Forestry, 2012, 5(1), 22-37.
 
[53]  Adekunle O, “The Role of Home Gardens in Household Food Security in Eastern Cape: A Case Study of Three Villages in Nkonkobe Municipality”. Journal of Agricultural Science 5(10), 2013.
 
[54]  Soumya Mohan, An assessment of the ecological and socioeconomic benefits provided by home gardens: a case study of Kerala, India, Dissertation, of the University of Florida 2004.
 
[55]  Merrey D. J Langan, S., ‘Garden Kits’ in Africa: lessons learned and the potential of improved water management. Colombo, Sri Lanka: International Water Management Institute (IWMI). 60p. (IWMI Working Paper 162). 2014.
 
[56]  B. Butterfield, The Impact of Home and Community Gardening In America, National Gardening Association, 2009.
 
[57]  SENAHUP, Rapport annuel du service national de l’horticulture urbaine et péri- urbaine à Lubumbashi. RD Congo, 2008, 8p, online http://www.fao.org/3/ak159f/ak159f20.pdf.
 
[58]  Mushagalusa B, “Drivers of Adoption of Integrated Pest Management among Small-scale Vegetable Farmers in Lubumbashi, DR Congo.” American Journal of Rural Development, vol. 7, no. 2 (2019): 53-59.