Journal of Business and Management Sciences
ISSN (Print): 2333-4495 ISSN (Online): 2333-4533 Website: http://www.sciepub.com/journal/jbms Editor-in-chief: Heap-Yih Chong
Open Access
Journal Browser
Go
Journal of Business and Management Sciences. 2013, 1(5), 83-95
DOI: 10.12691/jbms-1-5-2
Open AccessArticle

Construct Specification and Misspecification within the Application of Push-Pull-Mooring Theory of Switching Behaviour

Simon Gyasi Nimako1, and Benjamin A. Ntim2

1Department of Management Studies Education, University of Education, Winneba, Kumasi, Ghana

2Department of Innovation and Industrial Partnerships, Accra Institute of Technology, Ghana

Pub. Date: October 11, 2013

Cite this paper:
Simon Gyasi Nimako and Benjamin A. Ntim. Construct Specification and Misspecification within the Application of Push-Pull-Mooring Theory of Switching Behaviour. Journal of Business and Management Sciences. 2013; 1(5):83-95. doi: 10.12691/jbms-1-5-2

Abstract

This paper principally addresses the issue of construct specification and misspecification within the context of the application of Push-Pull-Mooring (PPM) theory of consumer switching behaviour (CSB), and what implications it has for practicing marketing researchers. Despite the prospects of the PPM framework as a dominant paradigm for current and future research, there is evidence of divergent specification of constructs for the PPM framework in empirical studies. This study addresses this problem by applying empirical guidelines to determine the correct specification for the PPM framework, and uses an empirical illustration to demonstrate the potential consequence of misspecifying the PPM constructs in business. The findings indicate that about 67% level of construct misspecification exist in available research applying the PPM model in CSB literature. Pull, Push, and Mooring effects are identified as multi-dimensional construct that should follow a first-order reflective, second-order formative specification in the application of the full model. The findings also indicate that misspecification has potentially negative consequence on the validity, content and parsimony of measurement models in the PPM framework. Recommendations for practicing researchers are discussed. The paper furthers our understanding of construct specification and misspecification in theory development in business research.

Keywords:
formative construct reflective construct Push-Pull-Mooring Theory construct misspecification switching behaviour structural Equation Modelling

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

Figures

Figure of 2

References:

[1]  Armstrong, J. B. and Overton, T. S., “Estimating nonresponse bias in mail surveys”, Journal of Marketing Research, 14(3), pp. 396–402. 1977.
 
[2]  Babbie, E., The basics of social research (4th ed.). Belmont, CA: Thomson Wadsworth Publishing Company. 2008.
 
[3]  Bansal, H. S., and Taylor, S. F., “The service provider switching model (SPSM): A model of consumer switching behavior in the services industry“. Journal of Service Research, 21, 200-218. 1999.
 
[4]  Bansal, H. S., Taylor, S. F., and James, Y. St., “Migrating” to New Service Providers: Toward a Unifying Framework of Consumers' Switching Behaviors”, Journal of theAcademy of Marketing Science Vol. 33(1). pp. 96-115. 2005.
 
[5]  Bogue, D. J., Principles of Demography. New York: John Wiley. 1969.
 
[6]  Bogue, D. J., A Migrants-Eye View of the Costs and Benefits of Migration to a Metropolis. In Internal Migration: A Comparative Perspective. New York: Academic Press, 167-182. 1977.
 
[7]  Bollen, K. A., Structural equations with latent variables. John Wiley and Sons, New York. 1989.
 
[8]  Bollen, K. A., and Davis, W. R., Causal indicator models: Identification, estimation, and testing. Paper presented at the American Sociological Association Convention, Miami. 1994.
 
[9]  Bollen, K. A., and Lennox, R. “Conventional wisdom on measurement: A structural equation perspective“. Psychological Bulletin, 110, 305-314. 1991..
 
[10]  Cenfetelli, R. T., and Bassellier, G., “Interpretation of formative measurement in information systems research“. Management Information Systems Quarterly, 33, p. 7. 2009.
 
[11]  Cheng, Z., Yang, Y., and John, L., Cyber Migration: An Empirical Investigation on Factors that Affect Users’ Switching Intentions in Social Networking Sites. Proceedings of the 42nd Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences-200. 2009.
 
[12]  Chin, W., How to write up and report PLS analyses. In: EspositoVinzi V, Chin W.W, Henseler J, Wang H (eds) Handbook of partial least squares: concepts, methods and applications. Springer Heidelberg, 655-690. 2010.
 
[13]  Chiu, H., Hsiehb, Y., Roanc, J., Tsengc, K., and Hsiehb, J., “The challenge for multichannel services: Cross-channel free-riding behaviour”. Electronic Commerce Research andApplications 10, 268-277. 2011.
 
[14]  Coltman, T., Devinney, T. M., Midgley, D. F., and Veniak, S., “Formative versus reflective measurement models: Two applications of formative measurement.” Journal of Business Research, 61(12), 1250-1262. 2008.
 
[15]  Diamantopoulos, A., and Siguaw, J.A., “Formative versus reflective indicators in organizational measure development: a comparison and empirical illustration”. British Journal of Management, 17(4), 263-282. 2006.
 
[16]  Diamantopoulos, A., and Winklhofer, H. M., “Index construction with formative indicators. Journal of Marketing Research, 38, 269-277. 2001.
 
[17]  Diamantopoulos, A., Riefler, P., and Roth, K. P., “Advancing formative measurement models”. Journal of Business Research, 61, (12), 1203-1218. 2008.
 
[18]  Diamantopoulos, A., and Winklhofer, H. M., “Index construction with formative indicators: An alternative to scale development”. Journal of Marketing Research, 38 (2), 269-277. 2001.
 
[19]  Dorigo, G., and Tobler, W., “Push-Pull Migration Laws”. Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 73 (1), 1-17. 1983.
 
[20]  Edwards, J. R. Multidimensional Constructs in Organizational Behavior Research: An Integrative Analytical Framework”. Organizational Research Methods, 4 (2), 144-192. 2001.
 
[21]  Edwards, J. R. and Bagozzi, R. P., “On the nature and direction of relationships between constructs and measures”. Psychological Methods, 5, 155-174. 2000.
 
[22]  Fornell, C., and Larcker, D. F., “Evaluating structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error”. Journal of Marketing Research, 18, 39-50. 1981.
 
[23]  Fu, J. R., “Understanding career commitment of IT professionals: Perspectives of push pull-mooring framework and investment model”. International Journal of Information Management, 31(3), 279-293. 2011.
 
[24]  Gerbing, D. W. and Hamilton, J. G., “Viability of exploratory factor analysis as a precursor to confirmatory factor analysis”. Structural Equation Modeling, 3(1), 62-72. 1996.
 
[25]  Gerrard, P., and Cunningham, J. B., “Consumer switching behavior in the Asian banking market”. Journal of Services Marketing, 18, pp. 215-223. 2004.
 
[26]  Hair, J., Ringle C. M., and Sarstedt M., “PLS-SEM: Indeed a Silver Bullet”. Journal of Marketing Theory and Practice, 19 (2), 139-151. 2011.
 
[27]  Hair, J. F., Black, W. C., Babin, B. J., and Anderson, R. E., Multivariate Data Analysis, Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall. 2010.
 
[28]  Hauser, R. M. Disaggregating a social-Psychological model of educational attainment. In: A. S. Goldberger and O. D. Duncan (eds), Structural equation models in the social sciences. Seminar Press, New York. 1973.
 
[29]  Helm S., “Designing a Formative Measure for Corporate Reputation”. Corporate Reputation Review, 8 (2), 95-109. 2005.
 
[30]  Henkel, R. E., Tests of significance. Sage Publications, Beverly Hills, CA. 1976.
 
[31]  Hooper, D., Coughlan, J., and Mullen, M. R., “Structural Equation Modelling: Guidelines for Determining Model Fit”. The Electronic Journal of Business Research Methods, 6 (1), 53-60, 2008.
 
[32]  Hou, A.C.Y., Chern, C.C., Chen, H.G. and Chen, Y.C., “Migrating to a New Virtual World’: Exploring MMPORG Switching through Human Migration Theory”. Computers in Human Behavior, 27(5), 1892-1903. 2011.
 
[33]  Hsieh, J. K., Hsieh, Y. C., Chiu, H.C. and Feng, Y.C., “Post-Adoption Switching Behavior for Online Service Substitutes: A Perspective of the Push–Pull–Mooring Framework”. Computers in Human Behavior, 28, 1912-1920. 2012.
 
[34]  Hulland, J., “Use of partial least squares (pls) in strategic management research: A review of four recent studies”. Strategic Management Journal, 20(2), 195-204. 1999.
 
[35]  Jarvis, C. B., MacKenzie, S. B., and Podsakoff, P., “A critical review of construct indicators and measurement model misspecification in marketing and consumer research”. Journal of Consumer Research, 30, 1999-1216. 2003.
 
[36]  Keaveney, S. M., “Customer switching behavior in service industries: An exploratory study”. Journal of Marketing, 50. (2), 71-82. 1995.
 
[37]  Lai, J.Y., Debbarma. S., and Ulhas, K. R., “An Empirical Study of Consumer Switching Behaviour towards Mobile Shopping: a Push-Pull-Mooring Model”. International Journal of Mobile Communications, 10(4), 386-404. 2012.
 
[38]  Law, K. S., and Wong, C. S., “Multidimensional Constructs in Structural Equation Analysis: An Illustration Using the Job Perception and Job Satisfaction Constructs”. Journal of Management, 25 (2), 143-160. 1999.
 
[39]  Law, K. S., Wong, C. S., and Mobley, W. H., “Towards a Taxonomy of Multidimensional Constructs”. Academy of ManagementReview, 23 (4), 741-755. 1998.
 
[40]  Lee, E. S., “A Theory of Migration”. Demography, 3 (1), 47-57. 1966.
 
[41]  MacCallum, R. C., and Browne, M. W., “The use of causal indicators in covariance structure models: Some practical issues”. Psychological Bulletin, 114, 533-541. 1993.
 
[42]  MacKenzie, S. B., “The Danger of Poor Construct Conceptualization”. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 31(3), 323-326. 2003.
 
[43]  MacKenzie, S. B., Podsakoff, P. M., and Jarvis, C. B., “The Problem of Measurement Model Misspecification in Behavioural and Organizational Research and some Recommended Solutions”. Journal of Applied Psychology, 90 (4), 710-730. 2005.
 
[44]  Martin, R., Cohen J. W., and Champion D. R., “Conceptualization, Operationalization, Construct Validity, and Truth in Advertising in Criminological Research”. Journal of Theoretical and Philosophical Criminology Truth in Advertising in Criminological Research, 5 (1), 1-38. 2013.
 
[45]  Moon, B., “Paradigm in Migration Research: Exploring 'Moorings' as a Schema”. Progress in Human Geography, 19, 504-524.
 
[46]  Nunnally, J. C., and Bernstein, I. H. (1994). Psychometric theory. (3rd edn.). McGraw-Hill, New York. 1995.
 
[47]  Park, H. M., “Univariate Analysis and Normality Test Using SAS, Stata, and SPSS”. Working Paper. The University InformationTechnology Services (UITS) Center for Statistical and Mathematical Computing, Indiana University. 2008. http://www.indiana.edu/~statmath/stat/all/normality/index.html
 
[48]  Petter, S., Straub, D., and Rai, A., “Specifying Formative Constructs in IS Research”. MIS Quarterly Vol. 31 (4), 623-656. 2007.
 
[49]  Razali, N. M., and Wah, Y.B., “Power comparisons of Shapiro-Wilk, Kolmogorov-Smirnov, Lilliefors and Anderson-Darling tests”. Journal of Statistical Modelling and Analytics, 2(1), 21-33. 2011.
 
[50]  Roos, I., “Switching processes in customer relationships. Journal of Service Research 2 (1), 68-84. 1999b.
 
[51]  Roos, I., Edvardsson, B., and Gustafsson, A., “Customer Switching Patterns in Competitive and Noncompetitive Service Industries”, Journal of Service Research, 6, 256. 2004.
 
[52]  Roy, S and Tarafdar, M, Ragu-Nathan, T, S and Marsillac, E. The Effect of Misspecification of Reflective and Formative Constructs in Operations and Manufacturing Management Research. The Electronic Journal of Business Research Methods, 10 (1), 34-52. 2012.
 
[53]  Steenkamp, J. B. E. M., and van Trijp, H. C. M., “The use of LISREL in validating marketing constructs”. International Journal of Research in Marketing, 8, 283-299. 1991.
 
[54]  Stimson, R. J., and Minnery, J., “Why People Move to the Sun-Belt: A Case Study of Long-Distance Migration to the Gold Coast”. Australia. Urban Studies, 35 (2), 193-214. 1998.
 
[55]  Straub, D., Boudreau, M. C., and Gefen, D., “Validation Guidelines for IS Positivist Research”. Communications of the AIS 13 (24), 380-427. 2004.
 
[56]  Suoniemi, S., Terho H., and Olkkonen R., “The Measurement of Endogenous Higher-Order Formative Composite Variables in PLS-SEM: An Empirical Application from CRM System Development”. World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology 72. 2012.
 
[57]  Temme, D., “Die Spezifikation und Identifikation formativer Messmodelle der Marketingforschung in Kovarianzstrukturanalysen”. Marketing ZFP; 28 (3): 183-209. 2006.
 
[58]  Tojib, D. R., Sugianto, L. F., and Sendjaya, S., “User satisfaction with business-to-employee portals: conceptualization and scale development”. European Journal of InformationSystems 17(6), 649-667. 2008.
 
[59]  Wetzels, M., Odekerken-Schröder, G., and Oppen, C.v., “Using PLS path modeling for assessing hierarchical construct models: guidelines and empirical Illustration”. MIS Quarterly, 33 (1), 177-195. 2009.
 
[60]  Ye, C., and Potter, R., “The Role of Habit in Post-Adoption Switching of Personal Information Technologies: An Empirical Investigation”. Communications of the Association for Information Systems: 28, 35, 2011. Available at: http://aisel.aisnet.org/cais/vol28/iss1/35
 
[61]  Zhang, K.Z.K., Cheung, C.M.K., and Lee, M.K.O., “Online service switching behavior: The case of blog service providers”. Journal of Electronic Commerce Research, 13, (3), 184-197. 2012.