Journal of Business and Management Sciences
ISSN (Print): 2333-4495 ISSN (Online): 2333-4533 Website: http://www.sciepub.com/journal/jbms Editor-in-chief: Heap-Yih Chong
Open Access
Journal Browser
Go
Journal of Business and Management Sciences. 2016, 4(6), 138-141
DOI: 10.12691/jbms-4-6-2
Open AccessArticle

Exploring the Nature of Psychological Empowerment of Women Entrepreneurs in a Rural Setting in Greater Accra, Ghana

Marijke A. A Okyireh1 and Kwabena Nkansah Simpeh2,

1Faculty of Humanities and Social Studies, Wisconsin International University, Ghana, P.O. Box LG 751, North Legon, Accra, Ghana

2Department of Management Studies, Wisconsin International University, Ghana, P.O. Box LG 751, North Legon, Accra, Ghana

Pub. Date: January 12, 2017

Cite this paper:
Marijke A. A Okyireh and Kwabena Nkansah Simpeh. Exploring the Nature of Psychological Empowerment of Women Entrepreneurs in a Rural Setting in Greater Accra, Ghana. Journal of Business and Management Sciences. 2016; 4(6):138-141. doi: 10.12691/jbms-4-6-2

Abstract

The authors explored the four dimensions (meaning, competence, choice, impact) of psychological empowerment in a sample of six rural entrepreneurial women at Amhrahia-Otinibi, a village in rural Greater Accra Region, Ghana. The findings indicate that these rural women engaged in entrepreneurial activities find their job more important and meaningful. The women were also reported to have an appreciable level of competence to manage their business. In addition, the findings showed that the women had a greater level of autonomy, independence, and freedom to manage their business. Furthermore, these women are reported to having control and significant influence over what happens in their business. The findings offer preliminary evidence that rural women engaged in entrepreneurial activities feel much empowered. These outcomes provide valuable insight to using entrepreneurship as a strategic tool to empower women in rural communities.

Keywords:
psychological empowerment entrepreneurial activity entrepreneurial women rural women rural setting Ghana

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

References:

[1]  Abbasian, A. & Bilt, C. (2009). Empowerment through entrepreneurship - a tool for integration among immigrant women? Centre for Innovation Systems, Entrepreneurship and Growth ¨C CISEG, Sweden.
 
[2]  Amatucci, F.M., & Crawley, D.C. (2011). Financial self-efficacy among women entrepreneurs, International Journal of Gender and Entrepreneurship, 3 (1), 23-37.
 
[3]  Ashforth, B. E. (1989). The experience of powerlessness in organisations. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 43: 207-242.
 
[4]  Bandura, A. (1989). Human agency in social cognitive theory. American Psychologist, 44:1175-1184.
 
[5]  Bell, N. E., & Staw, B. M. (1989). People as sculptors versus sculpture. In M. B. Arthur, D. T. Hall & B. S. Lawrence (Eds.), Handbook of career theory: 232-251. New York: Cambridge University Press.
 
[6]  Bhatnagar, J & Sandhu, S. (2005). Psychological empowerment and organisational citizenship behaviour (OCB) in IT' Managers: a talent retention tool. Indian Journal of Industrial Relations, 40(4), 449-469.
 
[7]  Brief, A. P., & Nord, W. R. (1990). Meanings of occupational work. Lexington, MA: Books.
 
[8]  Danjuma, Kegudu, S., Malami, H.U. & Gatawa, N.M. (2011). Skill Acquisition, Capacity Building and Women Economic Empowerment: A Case Study of Women Education Center, Birnin Kebbi. Gender & Behaviour, 9 (2).
 
[9]  Deci, E. L., Connell, J. P., & Ryan, R. M. (1989). Self-determination in a work organization. Journal of Applied Psychology, 74: 580-590.
 
[10]  Dempsey, D. & Jennings, J. (2014). Gender and entrepreneurial self-efficacy: learning perspective. International Journal of Gender and Entrepreneurship, 6 (1), 28-49.
 
[11]  De Pillis, E., & Reardon, K. K. (2011). The influence of personality traits and persuasive messages on entrepreneurial intention. A cross cultural comparison. Career Development International, 12(4), 382-396.
 
[12]  Gist, M. (1987). Self-efficacy: Implications for organizational behavior and human resource management. Academy of Management Review, 12: 472-485.
 
[13]  Gill, R. & Ganesh, S. (2007). Empowerment, Constraint, and the Entrepreneurial Self: A Study of White Women Entrepreneurs. Journal of Applied Communication Research, 35(3), 268-293.
 
[14]  Hackman, J. R., & Oldham, G. R. (1980). Work redesign. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley. Lee, J. (1997). The motivation of women entrepreneurs in Singapore. International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour & amp, 3 (2), 93-110.
 
[15]  Jeevan, J., Sharma, J. & Kumari, A. (2011). Factors affecting Orientation and satisfaction of women entrepreneurs in rural India. Annals of innovation and entrepreneurship, 2(1).
 
[16]  Kirkwood, J. (2009). Is a lack of self-confidence hindering women entrepreneurs? International Journal of Gender and Entrepreneurship, 1 (2): 118-133.
 
[17]  Martinko, M. J., & Gardner, W. L. (1982). Learned helplessness: An alternative explanation performance deficits. Academy of Management Review, 7: 195-204.
 
[18]  Oladipo, S.E. (2009). Psychological Empowerment and Development. Edo Journal of Counseling, 2(1).
 
[19]  Spector, P. E. (1986). Perceived control by employees: A meta-analysis of studies concerning autonomy and participation at work. Human Relations, 39: 1005-1016.
 
[20]  Thomas, K. W., & Velthouse, B. A. (1990). Cognitive elements of empowerment. Academy of Management Review, 15: 666-681.