Journal of Business and Management Sciences
ISSN (Print): 2333-4495 ISSN (Online): 2333-4533 Website: Editor-in-chief: Heap-Yih Chong
Open Access
Journal Browser
Journal of Business and Management Sciences. 2015, 3(2), 69-77
DOI: 10.12691/jbms-3-2-3
Open AccessArticle

Store Environment, Personality Factors and Impulse Buying Behavior in Egypt: The Mediating Roles of Shop Enjoyment and Impulse Buying Tendencies

Mohamad Saad1, and Madiha Metawie2

1Department of Psychology, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt

2Business Department, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt

Pub. Date: June 08, 2015

Cite this paper:
Mohamad Saad and Madiha Metawie. Store Environment, Personality Factors and Impulse Buying Behavior in Egypt: The Mediating Roles of Shop Enjoyment and Impulse Buying Tendencies. Journal of Business and Management Sciences. 2015; 3(2):69-77. doi: 10.12691/jbms-3-2-3


This study aimed at investigating the relationships between store environment factors, personality factors and impulse buying behaviors in Egypt. In addition, the mediating roles of shop enjoyment tendency and impulse buying tendency were also investigated. The data were obtained using a structured questionnaire from 500 participants, with a reasonable mix of demographic characteristics, recruited from mega mall customers working in Cairo –Egypt. The results indicated that three personality factors (impulsivity, excitement, and esteem) and two shop environment factors (music and layout) were significantly associated with impulse buying behavior. In addition, impulse buying tendency appeared to fully mediate the relationships between personality factors, shop enjoyment factors and impulse buying behavior. While shop enjoyment tendency appeared to fully mediate the relationship between store environment factors and impulse buying behavior, but did not mediate the relationship between personality factors and impulse buying behavior. The results were discussed in line with the extant literature. Research limitations and implications were reported.

store environment personality impulse buying tendency shop enjoyment tendency impulse buying behavior Egypt

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit


[1]  Abrahams, B., “It’s all in the mind”, Marketing, 27. 31-33. 1997.
[2]  Aghazadeh, S.M. “Layout strategies for retail operations: a case study”, Management Research News, 28 (10). 31-46. 2005.
[3]  Areni, C. S. and Kim, D., “The influence of in-store lighting on consumers’ examination of merchandise in a wine store”, International Journal of Research in Marketing, 11 (2). 117-125. 1994.
[4]  Babin, B. J. and Attaway, J. S., “Atmospheric affect as a tool for creating value and gaining share of customer”, Journal of Business Research, 49 (2). 91-99. 2000.
[5]  Baker, J., Parasuraman, A., Grewal, D. and Voss, G. B., “The influence of multiple store environment cues on perceived merchandise value and patronage intentions”, Journal of Marketing, 66 (2). 120-141. 2002.
[6]  Beatty, S. E. and M. Elizabeth Ferrell, “Impulse Buying: Modeling Its Precursors,” Journal of Retailing, 74 (2), 169-91. 1998.
[7]  Bellenger, D. N. and Korgaonkar, P. K., “Profile the recreational shopper”, Journal of Retailing, 56 (3). 77-92. 1980.
[8]  Bellenger, D. N., Robertson, D. H. and Hirschman, E.C., “Impulse buying varies by product'', Journal of Advertising Research, 18. 15-18. 1978.
[9]  Beverland, Michael, Lim, Elison Ai Ching, Morrison, Michael, Terziovski, Milé. “In-store music and consumer–brand relationships: Relational transformation following experiences of (mis)fit”, Journal of Business Research, 59. 982-989. 2006.
[10]  Broekemier, Greg, Marquardt, Ray., Gentry, James W., “An exploration of happy/sad and liked/disliked music effects on shopping intentions in a women's clothing store service setting”, Journal of Services Marketing, 22 (1). 59-67. 2008.
[11]  Bruner, Gordon C. “Music, Mood, and Marketing”, Journal of Marketing, 54. (4). 94-104. 1990.
[12]  Chebat J-C, Michon R. “Impact of ambient odors on mall shoppers' emotions, cognition and spending: a test of competitive causal theories”. Journal of Business Research, 56. 529-39. 2003.
[13]  Cobb, C. J. and Hoyer, W. D., “Planned versus impulse purchase behavior'', Journal of Retailing, 62 (4). 384-409. 1986.
[14]  Coltman, T., Devinney, T. M., Midgley, D. F. and Venaik, S., “Formative versus reflective measurement models: two applications of formative measurement”, Journal of Business Research, 61 (12). 1250-1262. 2008.
[15]  Cui, Geng and Qiming Liu, “Emerging Market Segments in a Transitional Economy: A Study of Urban Consumers in China,” Journal of International Marketing, 9 (1), 84-106. 2001.
[16]  Darden, W. R., Erdem, O. and Darden, D. K., “A comparison and test of three causal models of patronage intentions”, in Darden, W.R. and Lusch, R.F. (Eds), Patronage Behavior and Retail Management, North- Holland, New York, 1983, 29-43.
[17]  Dawson, Sandy and Kim, Minjeong, “External and internal trigger cues of impulse buying online”, Direct Marketing: An International Journal, 3 (1). 20-34. 2009.
[18]  Diamantopoulos, A. and Winklhofer, H. M., “Index construction with formative indicators: an alternative to scale development”, Journal of Marketing Research, 38 (2). 269-277. 2001.
[19]  Dickson, J. and Albaum, G., “A method for developing tailor-made semantic differentials for specific marketing content areas”, Journal of Marketing Research, 14 (1). 87-91. 1977.
[20]  Donovan, R.J., Rossiter, J.R., Marcoolyn, G. and Nesdale, A., “Store atmosphere and purchasing behavior”, Journal of Retailing, 70 (3). 283-94. 1994.
[21]  Engelland, B.T., Hopkins, C. D. and Larson, D. A., “Market mavenship as an influencer of service quality evaluations”, Journal of Marketing Theory and Practice, 9 (4), 15-26. 2001.
[22]  Eroglu, S. A. and Machleit, K. A., “Atmospheric Factors in the Retail Environment: Sights, Sounds and Smells,” Advances in Consumer Research, 20. 34. 1993.
[23]  Goldsmith, R. E., Flynn, L. R. and Goldsmith, E. B., “Innovative consumers and market mavens”, Journal of Marketing Theory and Practice, 11 (4). 54-65. 2003.
[24]  Grewal, Dhruv. Nordfält, Jens, Roggeveen, Anne L. and Hill, Krista M., “Insights from In-Store Marketing Experiments, In Shopper Marketing and the Role of In-Store Marketing”. Review of Marketing Research, 11. 127-146. 2014.
[25]  Han, Y. K., Morgan, G. A., Kotsiopulos, A. and Kang-Park, J., “Impulse buying behavior of apparel purchasers'', Clothing and Textile Research Journal, 9 (3). 15-21. 1991.
[26]  Harmancioglu R., Nukhet and Joseph, Zachary Finney Mathew, “Impulse purchases of new products: An empirical analysis”, Journal of Product & Brand Management, 18 (1). 27-37. 2009.
[27]  Hausman, Angela,”A multi-method investigation of consumer motivations in impulse buying behavior”, Journal of Consumer Marketing, 17 (5). 403-426. 2000.
[28]  Hu, H. and Jasper, C., “Social cues in the store environment and their impact on store image”, International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, 34 (1). 25-48. 2006.
[29]  Jang S, and Namkung Y., “Perceived quality, emotions, and behavioral intentions: application of an extended Mehrabian–Russell model to restaurants” Journal of Business Research, 62 (4). 451-60. 2009.
[30]  Jarvis, C. B., Mackenzie, S. B., Podsakoff, P.M., Mick, G. M. and Bearden, W.O., “A critical review of construct indicators and measurement model misspecification in marketing and consumer research”, Journal of Consumer Research, 30 (2). 199-218. 2003.
[31]  Kacen, Jacqueline J. and Lee, Julie Anne, “The Influence of Culture on Consumer Impulsive Buying Behavior”, Journal of Consumer Psychology, 12 (2). 163-176. 2002.
[32]  Kellaris, James J. and Kent, Robert J., “The Influence of Music on Consumers' Temporal Perceptions: Does Time Fly When You're Having Fun?” Journal of Consumer Psychology, 1 (4). 365-376. 1992.
[33]  Kim, Hyejeong, Fiore, Ann Marie., Niamh, Linda S., and Jeong, Miyoung. “Psychographic characteristics affecting behavioral intentions towards pop-up retail”, International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, 38 (2). 133-154. 2010.
[34]  Kim, Jae-Eun and Kim, Jieun, “Human factors in retail environments: A review”, International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, 40 (11). 818-841. 2012.
[35]  Kollat, D. T. and Willett, R.P., “Consumer impulse purchasing behavior'', Journal of Marketing Research, 4. 21-31. Feb. 1967.
[36]  Lee, J. A. and Kacen, J. J., “Cultural influences on consumer satisfaction with impulse and planned purchase decisions”, Journal of Business Research, 61 (3). 265-272. 2008.
[37]  Liao, Shu-Ling. Shen, Yung-Cheng and Chu, Chia-Hsien., “The effects of sales promotion strategy, product appeal and consumer traits on reminder impulse buying behavior”, International Journal of Consumer Studies, 33 (3). 274-284. 2009.
[38]  Luo, X., “How does shopping with others influence impulsive purchasing?” Journal of Consumer Psychology, 15 (4). 288-294. 2005.
[39]  Maheswaran, Durairaj, & Shavitt, Sharon, “Issues and new directions in global consumer psychology”. Journal of Consumer Psychology, 9 (2), 59-66. 2000.
[40]  Mai, Nguyen Thi Tuyet, Lantz, Garold, Jung, Kwon, and Loeb, Sandra G. “An Exploratory Investigation into Impulse Buying Behavior in a Transitional Economy: A study of Urban Consumers in Vietnam”, Journal of International Marketing, 11 (2). 13-35. 2003.
[41]  Mattila, Anna S. and Wirt, Jochen, “The role of store environmental stimulation and social factors on impulse purchasing”, Journal of Services Marketing, 22 (7). 562-567. 2008.
[42]  Mohan, Geetha, Sivakumaran, Bharadhwaj and Sharma, Piyush, “Impact of store environment on impulse buying behavior”, European Journal of Marketing, 47 (10). 1711-1732. 2013.
[43]  Morin S, Dubé L, Chebat J-C., “The role of pleasant music in servicescapes: A test of the dual model of environmental perception”. Journal of Retailing, 83(1). 115-30. 2007.
[44]  Newman A. J, and Patel D., “The marketing directions of two fashion retailers”. European Journal of Marketing, 38 (7/8). 770–89. 2004.
[45]  Omar, Ogenyi and Kent, Anthony, “International airport influences on impulsive shopping: trait and normative approach”, International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, 29 (5). 226-235. 2001.
[46]  Park, Jihye and Lennon, Sharron J., “Psychological and environmental antecedents of impulse buying tendency in the multichannel shopping context”, Journal of Consumer Marketing, 23 (2). 56-66. 2006.
[47]  Piron, F., “Defining impulse purchasing'', in Holman, R.H. and Solomon, M.R. (Eds), Advances in Consumer Research, Vol. 18, Association for Consumer Research, 1991, 509-514.
[48]  Rook D. and Hoch, S., “Consuming impulses'', in Hirschman, E.C. and Holbrook (Eds), Advances in Consumer Research, Vol. 12, 1985, 23-27.
[49]  Rook, Dennis W., “The Buying Impulse”, Journal of Consumer Research, 14 (2). 189-199. 1987.
[50]  Sfiligoj, E., “Helping the little guy to merchandise”, Periscope, 1996.
[51]  Shamdasani, Prem N. and Dennis W. Rook, “An Exploratory Study of Impulse Buying in an Oriental Culture: The Case of Singapore”, Singapore Marketing Review, 4. 7-20. 1989.
[52]  Sharma, P., Sivakumaran, B., and Marshall, R., (2014),”Looking beyond impulse buying”, European Journal of Marketing, 48 (5/6). 1159-1179. 2014.
[53]  Smith, D., “The joy of candy”, National Petroleum News Supplement. S2. 1996.
[54]  Spies, K., Hesse, F. and Loesch, K., “Store atmosphere, mood and purchasing behavior”, International Journal of Research in Marketing, 14 (1). 1-17. 1997.
[55]  Spinella, M. “Normative data and a short form of the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale”. International Journal of Neuroscience, 117 (3). 359-368. 2007.
[56]  Sproles, G.B. and Kendall, E. L., “A methodology for profiling consumers’ decision-making styles”, Journal of Consumer Affairs, 20 (2). 267-279. 1986.
[57]  Steenkamp, J. B. and Baumgartner, H., “The role of optimum stimulation level in exploratory consumer behavior”, Journal of Consumer Research, 19 (3). 434-48. 1992.
[58]  Summers, T. A. and Hebert, P. A., “Shedding some light on store atmospherics influence of illumination on consumer behavior”, Journal of Business Research, 54 (2). 145-150. 2001.
[59]  Venkatrman, M.P., “The impact of innovativeness and innovation type on adoption”, Journal of Retailing, 67 (1). 51-67. 1991.
[60]  Verplanken, B. and Sato, A., “The psychology of impulse buying: an integrative self-regulation approach”, Journal of Consumer Policy, 34 (2). 197-210. 2011.
[61]  Walsh, Gianfranco. E Shiu, Dward. Hassan, Louise M., Michaelidou, Nina. Beatty, and Sharon E., “Emotions, store-environmental cues, store-choice criteria, and marketing outcomes”, Journal of Business Research, 64. 737-744. 2011.
[62]  Welles, G., “We're in the habit of impulsive buying'', USA Today, May 21, 1. 1986.
[63]  Weun, S., Jones, M.A. and Beatty, S.E., “The development and validation of the impulse buying tendency scale”, Psychological Reports, 82 (3). 1123-1133. 1998.
[64]  Xu, Fang Meng Yingjiao, “Tourism shopping behavior: planned, impulsive, or experiential?” International Journal of Culture, Tourism and Hospitality Research, 6 (3). 250-265. 2012.
[65]  Youn, Seounmi and Faber, Ronald J., “Impulse Buying: Its Relation to Personality Traits and Cues”, Advances in Consumer Research, 27. 179-185. 2000.
[66]  Zhang, Y. and Shrum, L.J., “The influence of self-construal on impulsive consumption”, Journal of Consumer Research, 35 (5). 838-850. 2009.