Journal of Business and Management Sciences
ISSN (Print): 2333-4495 ISSN (Online): 2333-4533 Website: http://www.sciepub.com/journal/jbms Editor-in-chief: Heap-Yih Chong
Open Access
Journal Browser
Go
Journal of Business and Management Sciences. 2014, 2(1), 1-9
DOI: 10.12691/jbms-2-1-1
Open AccessArticle

Supervisor Status, Health and Organizational Commitment: Mediating Role of Support and Family-friendly Policies among Information Technology Professionals in India

Kamala Ramadoss1, and Megan E. Lape2

1Department of Child and Family Studies, Syracuse University, Syracuse, New York, USA

2Central New York Psychiatric Center, Marcy, New York, USA

Pub. Date: March 04, 2014

Cite this paper:
Kamala Ramadoss and Megan E. Lape. Supervisor Status, Health and Organizational Commitment: Mediating Role of Support and Family-friendly Policies among Information Technology Professionals in India. Journal of Business and Management Sciences. 2014; 2(1):1-9. doi: 10.12691/jbms-2-1-1

Abstract

The purpose of this investigation was to examine the relationship between supervisor status on employees’ health and organizational commitment as well as to assess the mediating role of supervisor support and the availability and use of family-friendly policies among Information Technology (IT) professionals in India. Using snowball technique, 359 IT professionals were surveyed from four cities in South and Western India. Structural equation modeling was done and in the initial model, supervisor status was related to organizational commitment, but not employees’ health. The non-significant path was removed and the mediating variables were then included in the model. The model fit improved and was determined to be a good fit to the data. Supervisor status directly impacted two of the mediating variables - supervisor support and employees’ knowledge of family-friendly policies. The direct impact of supervisor status on employees’ organizational commitment was partially mediated by supervisor support. Moreover, supervisor support also directly impacted employees’ knowledge of family-friendly policies and employees’ organizational commitment. Employees’ knowledge of family-friendly policies directly impacted employees’ use of family-friendly policies and indirectly mediated the impact of supervisor status on employees’ use of family-friendly policies and the impact of supervisor support on policy use. Employees’ use of family-friendly policies directly and positively impacted employees’ health, and indirectly mediated the impact of employees’ knowledge of family-friendly policies on employees’ health.

Keywords:
work-family interface supervisor status supervisor support software professionals India

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

References:

[1]  Achamamba, B., & Gopikumar, K. (1990). Locus of control and job involvement among men and women bank employees. Indian Journal of Applied Psychology, 27, 6-9.
 
[2]  Allen, N. J., & Meyer, J. P. (1990). The measurement and antecedents of affective, continuance and normative commitment to the organization. Journal of Occupational Psychology, 63, 1-18.
 
[3]  Allen, T. D. (2001). Family supportive work environments: The role of organizational perceptions. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 58, 414-435.
 
[4]  Allen, T. D., Poteet, M. L., Russell, J. E. A., & Dobbins, G. H. (1997). A field study of factors related to supervisors’ willingness to mentor others. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 50, 1-22.
 
[5]  Arbuckle, J.L. (2010). AMOS 19 User Manual. Retrieved from http://www.amosdevelopment.com/download/amos.pdf
 
[6]  Bashir, S., & Ramay, M. I. (2008). Determinants of organizational commitment: A study of Information Technology Professionals in Pakistan. Journal of Behavioral and Applied Management, 9(2), 226-238.
 
[7]  Batt, R., Doellgast, V., Kwon, H., Nopany, M., Nopany, P. & da Costa, A. (2005). The Indian Call Centre Industry: National benchmarking report strategy, HR practices, & performance (CAHRS Working Paper #05-07). Ithaca, NY: Cornell University, School of Industrial and Labor Relations, Center for Advanced Human Resource Studies.
 
[8]  Blair-Loy, M., & Wharton, A. S. (2002). Employees’ use of work-family policies and the workplace social context. Social Forces, 80, 813-845.
 
[9]  Budhwar, P. S. (2001). Doing business in India. Thunderbird International Business Review, 43(4), 549-68.
 
[10]  Budhwar, P. S., Varma, A., Malhotra, N., & Mukherjee, A. (2009). Insights into the Indian call center industry: Can internal marketing help tackle high employee turnover? Journal of Services Marketing, 23(5), 351-362.
 
[11]  Budhwar, P. S., Varma, A., Singh, V., & Dhar, R. (2006). HRM systems of Indian call centers: An exploratory study. International Journal of Human Resources Management, 17(5), 881-897.
 
[12]  Byrne, B. M. (2003). Structural equation modeling with EQS and EQS/Windows. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
 
[13]  Carless, S. A., & Wintle, J. (2007). Applicant attraction: The role of recruitment function, work-life balance policies and career salience. International Journal of Selection and Assessment, 15, 394-404.
 
[14]  Cashman, J., Dansereau, F. Jr., Graen, G., & Haga, W. J. (1976). Organizational understructure and leadership: A longitudinal investigation of the managerial role-making process. Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, 15, 278-296.
 
[15]  Casper, W. J., Fox, K. E., Sitzmann, T. M., & Landy, A. L. (2004). Supervisor referrals to work-family programs. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 9, 136-151.
 
[16]  Colton, C. L. 2004. The role of informal organizational work-family support in the use of formal work-family supports and associated outcomes. Unpublished Dissertation. Portland, OR: Portland State University.
 
[17]  Dreher, G. F. (2003). Breaking the glass ceiling: The effect of sex ratios and work-life programs on female leadership at the top. Human Relations, 56, 541-562.
 
[18]  Derogatis, L. R., Rikels, K., & Rock, A. F. (1976). The SCL–90 and MMPI: A step in the validation of a new self-report scale. British Journal of Psychiatry, 128, 280-289.
 
[19]  DiMaggio, P. J., & Powell, W. P. (1991). The iron cage revisited: Institutional isomorphism and collective rationality in organizational fields. American Sociological Review, 48, 147- 160.
 
[20]  Eisenberger, R., Huntington, R., Hutchison, S., & Sowa, D. (1986). Perceived organizational support. Journal of Applied psychology, 71, 500-507.
 
[21]  Eisenberger, R., Stinglhamber, F., Vandenberghe, C., Sucharski, I. L., & Rhoades, L. (2002). Perceived supervisor support: Contributions to organizational support and employee retention. Journal of Applied Psychology, 87, 565-573.
 
[22]  Family and Work Institute. (2002). National Study of the Changing Workforce. New York City, NY.
 
[23]  Graen, G. B., Cashman, J. F., Ginsburgh, S., & Schiemann, W. (1977). Effects of linking pin quality on the quality of working life of lower participants. Administrative Science Quarterly, 22, 491-504.
 
[24]  Glass, J. L., & Estes, S. B. (1997). The family response workplace. Annual Review of Sociology, 23, 289-313.
 
[25]  Harigopal, K., & Ravikumar, R. (1978). Role ambiguity, role conflict and certain job attitudes. Sedme, 3, 24-40.
 
[26]  Hopkins, K. M. (2005). Supervisor support and work-life integration: A social identity perspective. In In E. E. Kossek & S. J. Lambert (Eds.), Work and life integration: Organizational, cultural and individual perspectives (pp. 445-467). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
 
[27]  Hu, L. T. & Bentler, P. M. (1999). Cutoff criteria for Fit Indices in Covariance Structure Analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural Equation Modeling, 6, 1-55.
 
[28]  Jayaswal, R. (2005). Generation Y logs out of BPO honeymoon, The Economic Times, February 14.
 
[29]  Komaraju, M. (1997). The work-family interface in India. In S. Parasuram & J. H. Greenhaus (Eds.), Integrating work and family: Challenges for a changing world (pp. 104-114). Westport, CT: Quorum Books.
 
[30]  Kossek, E. (2005). Workplace policies and practices to support work and families. In S. Bianchi, L. Casper & R. King (Eds.), Work, family, health & well-being (pp. 97-116). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
 
[31]  Krishnan, S. K., & Singh, M. (2010). Outcomes of intention to quit of Indian IT professionals. Human Resource Management, 49, 421-437. doi: 10.1002/hrm.20357.
 
[32]  Madhavi, C., & Vimala, B. (2011). A study on work related stress and work family issues experienced by women software professionals in Chennai. International Proceedings of Economic Development and Research, 12, 264-268.
 
[33]  Mehta, A., Armenakis, A., Mehta, N., & Irani, F. (2006). Challenges and opportunities of Business Process Outsourcing in India. Journal of Labor Research, 27(3), 323-338.
 
[34]  Naithani, P. & Jha, A.N. (2009). “An empirical study of work and family life spheres and emergence of work-life balance initiatives under uncertain economic scenario.” Growth - MTI, Vol. 37, No. 1, pp. 69-73.
 
[35]  National Association of Software and Services Companies. (2011-12). India IT-BPO Industry. Retrieved on June, 26, 2012.
 
[36]  National Association of Software and Services Companies. (2010). IT-BPO sector in India: Strategic review. Retrieved on February 26, 2010.
 
[37]  Niharika (2008). Challenges for the Indian BPO. ICMR Case Studies and Management Resources. Retrieved September 10, 2009.
 
[38]  O’ Brian, R. (2007). A caution regarding rules of thumb for variance inflation factors, Quality and Quantity, 41(5), 673-690.
 
[39]  Osterman, P. (1995). Work/family programs and the employment relationship. Administrative Science Quarterly, 40, 681-700.
 
[40]  Parthasarathy, B. (2004). “India’s Silicon Valley or Silicon Valley’s India? Socially embedding the computer software industry in Bangalore.” International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, Vol. 28, pp. 664-685.
 
[41]  Pattanayak, Mishra, S.K., & Mishra, P.K. (1993). Psychological well-being and organizational commitment: A study on Public Sector. Indian Journal of Applied Psychology, 30, 24-31.
 
[42]  Perry-Smith, J. E., & Blum, T. C. (2000). Work-family resource bundles and perceived organizational performance. Academy of Management Journal, 43, 1107-1117.
 
[43]  Poster, W. R., & Prasad, S. (2005). Work-family relations in transnational perspective: A view from high-tech firms in India and the United States. Social Problems, 52, 122-146.
 
[44]  PricewaterhouseCoopers. (2005). The Evolution of BPO in India. Retrieved on October 14, 2010 from http://www.pwc.com/en_IN/in/assets/pdfs/evolution-of-bpo-in-india.pdf.
 
[45]  Raghuram, S., & Weisenfeld, B. (2004). Work-nonwork conflict and job stress among virtual workers. Human Resource Management, 43, 259-277.
 
[46]  Rajan-Rankin, S., & Tomlinson, M. (2012). Do work-family policies really ‘work’? Evidence from Indian call centers. In J. Greenhaus, S. A. Y. Poelmans, & M. de la Heras (Eds.). New frontiers in work-life research: Visions for the future in a global world. Palgrave Macmillan: Basingstoke.
 
[47]  Rajadhyaksha, U. (2009). Work-life in India. Executive Briefing Series. Boston College: Center for work and family.
 
[48]  Rhoades, L., Eisenberger, R., & Armeli, S. (2001). Affective commitment in the organization: The contribution of perceived organizational support. Journal of Applied Psychology, 86, 825-836.
 
[49]  Rhoades, L., & Eisenberger, R. (2002). Perceived organizational support: A review of literature. Journal of Applied Psychology, 87, 698-714.
 
[50]  Schreiber, J. B., Nora, A., Stage, F. K., Barlow, E. A. and King, J. (2006). Reporting Structural Equation Modeling and Confirmatory Factor Analysis Results: A Review, The Journal of Educational Research, 99 (6), 323-337.
 
[51]  Shanock, L. R., & Eisenberger, R. (2006). When supervisors feel supported: Relationships with subordinates’ perceived supervisor support, perceived organizational support, and performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 91, 689-695.
 
[52]  Shore, L. M., & Shore, T. H. (1995). Perceived organizational support and organizational justice. In R. Cropanzano, & M. Kacmar (Eds.), Organizational politics, justice and support: Managing the social climate in the work place (pp. 149-164). Westport, CT: Quorum.
 
[53]  Singh, H. (2005). Is the BPO iceberg melting under attrition heat? The Economic Times, February 10.
 
[54]  Singh, P., & Das, G.S. (1978). Organizational culture and its impact on commitment to work. Indian Journal of Industrial Relations, 13, 511-524.
 
[55]  Singh, P., Suar, D., & Leiter, M. (2012). Antecedents, work-related consequences and buffers of job burnout among Indian software developers. Journal of Leadership and Organizational Studies, 19, 83-104.
 
[56]  Singhal, S., & Sood, R. (1981). Control in hospital and occupational commitment of nurses. Managerial Psychology, 2, 51-59.
 
[57]  Srivastava, U. R., & Srivastava, S. (2012). Outcomes of work-family conflict among Indian Information Technology (IT) professionals. Social Science International, 28, 137-158.
 
[58]  Subramanian, S., & Vinothkumar, M. (2009). Hardiness personality, self-esteem and occupational stress among IT professionals. Journal of the Indian Academy of Applied Psychology, 35, 48-56.
 
[59]  Suman, S., & Srivastava, A. K. (2012). Antecedents of organizational commitment across hierarchical levels. Psychology and Developing Societies, 24, 61-83.
 
[60]  Suri, S., & Rizvi, S. (2008). Mental health and stress among call center employees. Journal of the Indian Academy of Applied Psychology, 34, 215-220.
 
[61]  Tangirala, S., Green, S. G., & Ramanujam, R. (2007). In the shadow of the boss’s boss: Effects of supervisors’ upward exchange relationships on employees. Journal of Applied Psychology. 92, 309-320.
 
[62]  Uma Devi, S. (2002, October 26). Globalization, Information Technology and Asian Indian women in US. Economic and Political Weekly.
 
[63]  Valk, R., & Srinivasan, V. (2011). Work-family balance of Indian women software professionals: A qualitative study, IIMB Management Review, 23, 39-50.
 
[64]  Wadhwa, R. (2004). Oh honey! I need a good night’s sleep. The economic Times, August 14.