Journal of Behavioural Economics, Finance, Entrepreneurship, Accounting and Transport
ISSN (Print): 2376-1326 ISSN (Online): 2376-1334 Website: http://www.sciepub.com/journal/jbe Editor-in-chief: Pr. Abdelfatteh Bouri
Open Access
Journal Browser
Go
Journal of Behavioural Economics, Finance, Entrepreneurship, Accounting and Transport. 2018, 6(1), 12-21
DOI: 10.12691/jbe-6-1-2
Open AccessArticle

The Role of Entrepreneurship Skills Training in the Economic Reintegration of LRA Ex-Combatants in Post-armed Conflict in Northern Uganda

Mshilla Maghanga1,

1Faculty of Business & Development Studies, Gulu University, Uganda

Pub. Date: October 08, 2018

Cite this paper:
Mshilla Maghanga. The Role of Entrepreneurship Skills Training in the Economic Reintegration of LRA Ex-Combatants in Post-armed Conflict in Northern Uganda. Journal of Behavioural Economics, Finance, Entrepreneurship, Accounting and Transport. 2018; 6(1):12-21. doi: 10.12691/jbe-6-1-2

Abstract

Reintegration of ex-combatants has been a concern after every armed conflict the world over. Northern Uganda experienced two decades (1986-2006) of such conflict. After the Juba Peace Talks that ended the hostilities between the Lord’s Resistance Army (LRA) rebels and the government forces, many LRA ex-combatants, under the Amnesty Act, have returned and are being reintegrated into their communities. This is under the disarmament, demobilization and reintegration (DDR) programme. Some received a reinsertion package between 2005 and 2009 to allow them reintegrate economically but this has not been effective. The purpose of this study was to assess the relevance of entrepreneurship skills training in the economic re-integration of the LRA ex-combatants. It was conducted in Gulu, Nwoya and Kitgum districts in Acholi Sub-region in northern Uganda. A sample size of 99 respondents was drawn from ex-combatants, their family members, business persons and Civil Society Organisations staffs. Forty eight were ex-combatants who were proportionately and randomly drawn from the three study districts. Both descriptive and inferential analyses carried out using SPSS software version 16. It was established that majority of the ex-combatants have extreme financial burdens arising from their marital status, polygamous type of marriage, number of children, and number of dependants that they have. Majority of them had no formal education while many had only primary education. Most were in the youth age group (18-35yrs) and 47.8% of them had no formal education. They had poor employability and low financial independence. Entrepreneurship skill training was established to be correlated to economic reintegration and that 44.7% of economic reintegration can be explained by entrepreneurship skill training. Business skills and financial literacy training were statistically significant predictors of economic reintegration. It was recommended that the government leads in financially supporting and cultivating the environment suitable for entrepreneurships skills training of ex-combatants.

Keywords:
entrepreneurship skills training economic reintegration LRA ex-combatants northern Uganda

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

References:

[1]  Maina Grace (2011). The complexity of applying UN Resolution 1325 in post conflict reintegration processes: The case of Northern Uganda. Occasional Paper Series: Issue 1, 2011. Published by the African Centre for the Constructive Resolution of Disputes (ACCORD).
 
[2]  United Nations (2005). Disarmament, Demobilization and Reintegration Resource Center: Introduction to integrated DDR standards Available at: http://www.unddr.org/iddrs.
 
[3]  Hansen, Anna Katrine (2009). A BottomUp Approach to Reintegration of ExCombatants in the Democratic Republic of Congo. Master Thesis, Copenhagen Business School.
 
[4]  Castillo, Graciana del (2015). Economic Reconstruction and Reforms in Post-Conflict Countries. Centre for Research on Peace and Development (CRPD) Working Paper No. 25.
 
[5]  UN (2006). IDDRS 4.30 Social and Economic Reintegration.
 
[6]  Ozerdem, A. (2009). Post-war recovery: disarmament, demobilisation and reintegration. London, I.B. Tauris.
 
[7]  Okello, G. (2008). Cited in Maina Grace (2011). The complexity of applying UN Resolution 1325 in post conflict reintegration processes: The case of Northern Uganda.
 
[8]  Jonah Schulhofer-Wohl and Nicholas Sambanis (2010). Disarmament, Demobilization, and Reintegration Programs: An Assessment- Research Report.
 
[9]  Owich James (2017). Amnesty fails to give 6,000 ex-rebels resettlement package. Daily Monitor Wednesday June 14 2017. Retrieved 5th February 2018 from http://www.monitor.co.ug/News/National/Amnesty-fails-to-give--6-000-ex-rebels-resettlement-package/688334-3968864-w8h59a/index.html.
 
[10]  Blattman C. and Anan J. (2008). ‘Child combatants in northern Uganda: Reintegration myths and realities’, in R. Muggah (Ed.). Security and post-conflict reconstruction: Dealing with fighters in the aftermath of war. Routledge. pp. 103-126. Available at http://www.chrisblattman.com/documents/research/2008.DDR.pdf
 
[11]  Lamb Guy, Alusala Nelson, Broodryk Amelia, Gasana Jean-Marie. Mthembu-Salter Gregory, and Stern Orly (2011). Assessing the Reintegration of Ex-Combatants in the Context of Instability and Informal Economies: The cases of the Central African Republic, the Democratic Republic of Congo and South Sudan.
 
[12]  Finn Anthony, Jefferson Clare, Vusia Santa and Yiga Deogratias (2011). Uganda Demobilisation and Reintegration Project: Beneficiary Assessment, December 2011.
 
[13]  Plaschka, G. R. and H. P. Welsch (1990). “Emerging structures in entrepreneurship education: Curricular designs and strategies.” Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice 14(3): 55-71.
 
[14]  Clark. B. W., Davis, C. H. & Harnish, V. C. (1984). Do courses in entrepreneurship aid in new venture creation? Journal of Small Business Management, 2, 26-31.
 
[15]  Hood, J. N. and Young, J. E. (1993). Entrepreneurship’s requisite areas of development: A survey of top executives in successful entrepreneurial firms. Journal of Business Venturing, 8, 115-135.
 
[16]  Gorman Gary, Hanlon Dennis, King Wayne (1997). Some research perspectives on entrepreneurship education, enterprise education and education for small business management: a ten-year literature review. International Small Business Journal, April-June 1997 v15 n3 p56(22).
 
[17]  IRIN (2012). Lack of funding stalls ex-combatants' reintegration. Retrieved 15th July 2018 from http://www.irinnews.org/report/95672/uganda-lack-funding-stalls-ex-combatants-reintegration.
 
[18]  Uganda Amnesty Act (2000-2008). Retrieved 12th March 2018 from Uganda Ligal Information Institute: https://ulii.org/node/23788.
 
[19]  Uganda Bureau of Statistics [UBOS] (2017). Statistical Abstract. Retrieved 12th March 2018 from https://www.ubos.org/wp-content/uploads/publications/03_20182017_Statistical_Abstract.pdf .
 
[20]  Body & Brown, 2005), Reintegration of Ex-Combatants through Micro-Enterprise: An Operational Framework. Canadian Peacekeeping Press, Pearson Peacekeeping Centre. ISBN: 1-896551-63-7.
 
[21]  Agger Kasper (2012). The End of Amnesty in Uganda: Implications for LRA Defections. The Enough Project. Retrieved 7th February from www.enoughproject.org
 
[22]  Banholzer Lilli (2014). When do disarmament, demobilisation and reintegration programmes succeed? German Development Institute: Discussion Paper 8/2014. Retrieved 6th February 2018 from https://www.die-gdi.de/uploads/media/DP_8.2014.pdf.
 
[23]  Markley Deborah M. and Low Sarah A (2012). Wealth, Entrepreneurship, and Rural Livelihoods. JEL Classification Codes: R1, O2, L26. Choices – The Magazine of Food, Farm and Resource Issues 1st Quarter 2012| 27(1).
 
[24]  Akello Grace, Richters Annemiek and Reis Ria (2006). Reintegration of former child soldiers in northern Uganda: Coming to terms with children’s agency and accountability. Intervention 2006, Volume 4, Number 3, Page 229 ^ 243.
 
[25]  United Nations Development Programme [UNDP] (2005). Human development report. New York, UNDP.
 
[26]  Baines, E., Stover, E. and Wierda, M. (2006) War-affected children and youth in northern Uganda: toward a brighter future. Chicago, MacArthur Foundation.
 
[27]  Simili Sylvia and Chand Satish (2013). Entrepreneurs and their impact on the reconstruction of post-conflict Bougainville.– University of NSW, Canberra, May 2013.
 
[28]  Garavan, T. N. and B. O'Cinneide (1994). “Entrepreneurship education and training programmes: A review and evaluation - Part 2.” Journal of European Industrial Training 18(11): 13-22.
 
[29]  Shepherd, D. A. and E. J. Douglas (1997). Is management education developing, or killing, the entrepreneurial spirit? United States Association for Small Business and Entrepreneurship Conference, San Francisco, CA.
 
[30]  Solomon, G. T. Weaver, K., M. & Fernald, L. W., Jr. (1994). Pedagogical Methods of Teaching Entrepreneurship: An Historical Perspective. Gaming and Simulation, Volume 25 Number 3, 67-79.
 
[31]  Solomon, George T. (2006). Are We Teaching Small Business Management to Entrepreneurs And Entrepreneurship to Small Business Managers? United States Association for Small Business and Entrepreneurship (USASBE) White Paper Series. The George Washington University.
 
[32]  Figueroa-Armijos, M., Dabson, B., and Johnson, T. G. (2012). Rural entrepreneurship in a time of recession. Entrepreneurship Research Journal, 2(1).