Journal of Behavioural Economics, Finance, Entrepreneurship, Accounting and Transport
ISSN (Print): 2376-1326 ISSN (Online): 2376-1334 Website: http://www.sciepub.com/journal/jbe Editor-in-chief: Pr. Abdelfatteh Bouri
Open Access
Journal Browser
Go
Journal of Behavioural Economics, Finance, Entrepreneurship, Accounting and Transport. 2014, 2(3), 70-76
DOI: 10.12691/jbe-2-3-3
Open AccessArticle

Development of a Theory Based Dynamic Model on Demand for Obesity Preventive Goods

Morro M.L. Touray1,

1Research Fellow, Health Economics and Policy Research Unit, Faculty of Life Sciences and Education, University of South Wales, Pontypridd, Wales, CF37 1DL, United Kingdom

Pub. Date: July 18, 2014

Cite this paper:
Morro M.L. Touray. Development of a Theory Based Dynamic Model on Demand for Obesity Preventive Goods. Journal of Behavioural Economics, Finance, Entrepreneurship, Accounting and Transport. 2014; 2(3):70-76. doi: 10.12691/jbe-2-3-3

Abstract

Introduction: Obesity is one of the leading causes of preventable morbidity and mortality world-wide. The behavioural nature of the condition has been highlighted by the fact that it is largely the result of an energy imbalance between calories consumed and calories expended. In that respect, obesity related morbidity and mortality can be reduced through preventive behaviours. As behavioural scientists, economists have done little to date to explain and understand why the demand for obesity preventing activities is low. The aim of this paper is to develop an economic theory-based dynamic model to gain better understanding of people’s obesity preventive behaviours. Methods: A literature search using a PICO approach was developed to identify the relevant variables considered to influence the demand for obesity preventive goods. To inform the model, a framework was developed to group variables and help determine appropriate linkages between them. Results: Anchors, anxiety and anxiety driven variables are fundamental influences of people’s risk reduction actions. The anchors, which are environmental as well as personal in character, serve as references and stimulate anxieties. However, anxiety levels are driven by many other variables including stigma and perceived health outcomes. In response to one’s anxiety an individual will take actions which can be explained, at least in part, by conventional economic theories particularly in terms of costs and utilities. Conclusions: Conventional economic theories of consumer behaviour cannot fully explain the demand for obesity preventive goods. The model demonstrates that many factors have to be considered including health economic, psychological and behavioural economic theories. The model should be tested through a well designed questionnaire before using it in a general adult population.

Keywords:
obesity Behavioural Economics preventive goods demand modelling

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

References:

[1]  Bisogni CA, Connors M, Devine CM, Sobal J: Who We Are and How We Eat: A Qualitative Study of Identities in Food Choice. Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior 34 (3): 128-139. 2002.
 
[2]  Blais MR: Toward a New Measure of Intrinsic Motivation, Extrinsic Motivation, and Amotivation in Sports: The Sport Motivation Scale (SMS). Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 17: 35-53. 1995.
 
[3]  Blissmer B, Riebe D, Dye G, Ruggiero L, Greene G, Caldwell M: Health-related quality of life following a clinical weight loss intervention among overweight and obese adults: intervention and 24 month follow-up effects; Health and Quality of Life Outcomes. Health Qual Life Outcomes, 4 (43): 1-8.Jul 2006.
 
[4]  Blundell JE, Cooling J: Routes to obesity: phenotypes, food choices and activity. British Journal of Nutrition, 83 (Suppl. 1): S33-S38. 2000
 
[5]  Broome J: Utility. Economics and Philosophy, 7 (01): 1-12. April 1991
 
[6]  Buchwald H, Avidor Y, Braunwald E, Jensen MD, Pories W, Fahrbach K, Schoelles K: Bariatric surgery: a systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA, 292 (14): 1724-1737. Oct 2004
 
[7]  Burnham CT: Altruism and spite in a selfish gene model of endogenous preferences. Journal of Bioeconomics, 3 (2-3): 123-148. May 2001.
 
[8]  Burton WN, Chen CY, Schultz AB, Edington DW: The economic costs associated with body mass index in a workplace. J Occup Environ Med, 40 (9): 786-792. Sep 1998.
 
[9]  Camerer C: Behavioral economics: Reunifying psychology and economics. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 96 (19): 10575-10577. Sep 1999.
 
[10]  Cawley J: An economic framework for understanding physical activity and eating behaviors. Am J Prev Med, 27 (3 Suppl): 117-125. Oct 2004.
 
[11]  Clegg A, Colquitt J, Sidhu M, Royle P, Walker A: Clinical and cost effectiveness of surgery for morbid obesity: a systematic review and economic evaluation. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord, 27 (10): 1167-1177. Oct 2003.
 
[12]  Cohen D: Utility model of preventative behaviour. J Epidemiol Community Health, 38 (1):61-65.Mar 1984.
 
[13]  Dasgupta P, Maskin E: Uncertainty and Hyperbolic Discounting. The American Economic Review, 95 (4): 1290-1299. Sep 2005.
 
[14]  Daviglus ML, Liu K, Yan LL, Pirzada A, Manheim L, Manning W, Carside DB, Wang R, Dyer AR, Greenland P et al: Relation of body mass index in young adulthood and middle age to Medicare expenditures in older age. JAMA, 292 (22):2743-2749. Dec 2004.
 
[15]  Deitel M: Overweight and obesity worldwide now estimated to involve 1.7 billion people. Obes Surg, 13 (3):329-330. Jun 2003.
 
[16]  Dent M: The economic burden of obesity. Oxford: National Obesity Observatory, UK; 2010.
 
[17]  Dishman RK, Motl RW, Saunders R, Felton G, Ward DS, Dowda M, Pate RR: Enjoyment mediates effects of a school-based physical-activity intervention. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 37 (3): 478-487. Mar 2005.
 
[18]  Durden ED, Huse D, Ben-Joseph R, Chu BC: Economic costs of obesity to self-insured employers. J Occup Environ Med, 50 (9): 991-997. Sep 2008.
 
[19]  Egger G, Swinburn B: An “ecological” approach to the obesity pandemic. BMJ, 315 (7106): 477-480. Aug 1997.
 
[20]  Finkelstein EA, Fiebelkorn C, Wang G: The costs of obesity among full-time employees Am J Health Promot, 20 (1): 45-51. Oct 2005.
 
[21]  Folland S, Goodman AC, Stano M: The economics of health and health care. 5th edition. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson Education Inc.; 2007
 
[22]  Fontaine KR, Barofsky I: Obesity and health-related quality of life. Obes Rev, 2 (3): 173-182. Aug 2001.
 
[23]  Foresight: Tackling obesities: future choices-project report (2nd Ed). London: Government Office for Science; 2007.
 
[24]  Frederick S, Loewenstein G, O’Donoghue T: Time Discounting and Time Preference: A Critical Review. Journal of Economic Literature, XL: 351-401. Jun 2002.
 
[25]  Green EC, Murphy E: Health belief model. In The Wiley Blackwell Encyclopedia of Health, Illness, Behavior, and Society. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2014: 766-769.
 
[26]  Grossman M: On the concept of health capital and the demand for health. Journal of Political Economy, 80 (2): 223-255.Mar-Apr 1972.
 
[27]  Grün F, Blumberg B: Environmental obesogens: organotins and endocrine disruption via nuclear receptor signalling. Endocrinology, 147 (6 Suppl): S50-S55. Jun 2006.
 
[28]  Hassan MK, Joshi AV, Madhavan SS, Amonkar MM: Obesity and health-related quality of life: a cross-sectional analysis of the US population. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord, 27 (10): 1227-1232. Oct 2003.
 
[29]  Hodgins M, Fuller R: 'Come for the weight loss, stay for the enjoyment'-exploring attributions for initiating and maintaining exercise. The Irish Journal of Psychology, 22 (2): 51-58.May 2001.
 
[30]  James DC: Factors Influencing Food Choices, Dietary Intake, and Nutrition-Related Attitudes among African Americans: Application of a Culturally Sensitive Model. Ethn Health, 9 (4): 349-367.Nov 2004.
 
[31]  James PT, Leach R, Kalamara E, Shayeghi M: The worldwide obesity epidemic. Obes Res, 9 (Suppl. 4): 228S-233S. Nov 2001.
 
[32]  Jehle GA, Reny PJ: Advanced Microeconomic Theory. 3rd edition. Harlow, UK: Pearson Education Limited; 2000
 
[33]  Kaukua J, Pekkarinen T, Sane T, Mustajoki P: Health-related quality of life in obese outpatients losing weight with very-low-energy diet and behaviour modification: a 2-y follow-up study. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord, 27 (10): 1233-1241. Oct 2003.
 
[34]  Kiawi E, Edwards R, Shu J, Unwin N, Kamadjeu R, Mbanya JC: Knowledge, attitudes, and behavior relating to diabetes and its factors among urban residents in Cameroon: A qualitative survey. Ethn Dis, 16 (2): 503-509. Spring 2006.
 
[35]  Kreps DM: A course in microeconomic theory. Harlow, UK: Pearson Education Limited; 1990.
 
[36]  Lake A, Townshend T: Obesogenic environments: exploring the built and food environments. J R Soc Promot Health, 126 (6): 262-267 Nov 2006.
 
[37]  Long DA, Reed R, Lehman G: The cost of lifestyle health risks: obesity. J Occup Environ Med, 48 (3): 244-251. Mar 2006.
 
[38]  MacLean LD, Rhode BM, Forse RA, Nohr C: Surgery for obesity-an update of a randomized trial. Obes Surg, 5 (2): 145-150. May 1995.
 
[39]  Madden GJ, Bickel WK, Jacobs EA: Discounting of delayed rewards in opioid-dependent outpatients: Exponential or hyperbolic discounting functions? Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology, 7 (3): 284-293. Aug 1999.
 
[40]  Martin LF, White S, Lindstrom Jr. W: Cost-benefit analysis for the treatment of severe obesity World J Surg, 22 (9): 1008-1017. Sep 1998.
 
[41]  McCormick B, Stone I: Economic costs of obesity and the case for government intervention. Obes Rev, 8 (Suppl 1): 161-164. Mar 2007.
 
[42]  NHS Health and Social Care Information Centre Lifestyles Statistics: Statistics on obesity, physical activity and diet: England, 2013. Leeds: National Health Service, UK; 2013.
 
[43]  Ni Mhurchu C, Bennett D, Lin R, Hackett M, Jull A, Rodgers A: Obesity and health-related quality of life: results from a weight loss trial. N Z Med J, 117 (1207): U1211. Dec 2004.
 
[44]  Pratt M, Macera CA, Sallis JF, O’Donnell M, Frank L: Economic interventions to promote physical activity: applications of the SLOTH model. Am J Prev Med, 27 (3 Suppl): 136-145. Oct 2004.
 
[45]  Prelec D: Decreasing Impatience: A Criterion for Non-stationary Time Preference and “Hyperbolic” Discounting. The Scandinavian Journal of Economics, 106 (3): 511-532. Sep 2004.
 
[46]  Pyone JS, Isen AM: Positive Affect, Intertemporal Choice, and Levels of Thinking: Increasing Consumers' Willingness to Wait. Journal of Marketing Research, 48 (3): 532-543. June 2011.
 
[47]  Quesenberry CP, Caan B, Jacobson A: Obesity, health services use, and health care costs among members of a health maintenance organization. Arch Intern Med, 158 (5): 466-472. Mar 1998.
 
[48]  Read D: Intertemporal choice-Working Paper LSEOR 03.58. London: The London School of Economics and Political Science; 2003.
 
[49]  Renzaho AMN: Fat, rich and beautiful: changing socio-cultural paradigms associated with obesity risk, nutritional status and refugee children from sub-Saharan Africa. Health Place, 10 (1): 105-113. Mar 2004.
 
[50]  Santos CMC, Pimenta CAM, Nobre MRC: The PICO strategy for the research question construction and evidence search. Rev Latino-am Enfermagem, 15 (3): 508-511. May-Jun 2007.
 
[51]  Sassi F: Obesity and the economics of prevention: fit not fat. France: OECD Publishing; 2010.
 
[52]  Sassi F, Cecchini M, Lauer JA, Lee YY, Guajardo-Barron V, Chisholm D: Tackling of unhealthy diets, physical inactivity, and obesity: health eff ects and cost-eff ectiveness. Lancet, 376 (9754): 1775-1784. Nov 2010.
 
[53]  Schardt C, Adams MB, Owens T, Keitz S, Fontelo P: Utilization of the PICO framework to improve searching PubMed for clinical questions. BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making, 7 (16).Jun 2007
 
[54]  The NHS Information Centre Lifestyle Statistics: Statistics on obesity, physical activity and diet: England. Leeds: The Information Centre for Health and Social Care, NHS, UK; Jan 2008.
 
[55]  The NHS Information Centre Lifestyle Statistics: Statistics on obesity, physical activity and diet: England, February 2009. Version 1 edition.: The Health and Social Care Information Centre, NHS, UK 2009.
 
[56]  The NHS Information Centre Lifestyles Statistics: Statistics on obesity, physical activity and diet: England, 2010. Version 1 edition. Leeds, UK: The Health and Social Care Information Centre, NHS, UK; 2010.
 
[57]  Touray MML: Research on obesity-time to think about the next agendas. Prog Health Sci, 3 (2): 40-52. Dec 2013.
 
[58]  Tran BX, Nair AV, Kuhle S, Ohinmaa A, Veugelers PJ: Cost analyses of obesity in Canada: scope, quality, and implications. Cost Eff Resour Alloc, 11 (1): 3. Feb 2013.
 
[59]  Tversky A, Kahneman D: Advances in prospect theory: cumulatve representation of uncertanty. J Risk Uncertainty 5 (4): 297-323. Oct 1992.
 
[60]  Tversky A, Kahneman D: Judgment under uncertainty: heuristics and biases. Science, 185 (4157): 1124-1131. Sep 1974.
 
[61]  van Nunen AM, Wouters EJ, Vingerhoets AJ, Hox JJ, Geenen R: The health-related quality of life of obese persons seeking or not seeking surgical or non-surgical treatment: a meta-analysis. Obes Surg, 17 (10): 1357-1366. Oct 2007.
 
[62]  Wang LY, Yang Q, Lowry R, Wechsler H: Economic analysis of a school-based obesity prevention program. Obes Res, 11 (11): 1313-1324. Nov 2003.
 
[63]  White KR: The relation between socioeconomic status and academic achievement. Psychological Bulletin, 91 (3): 461-481. May 1982
 
[64]  WHO: Mortality and Global Burden of Disease (GBD). World Health Organisation; 2012.
 
[65]  Obesity and overweight [http://www.who.int/topics/obesity/en/]. 09/05/2014
 
[66]  Wiczinski E, Do¨ ring A, John J, von Lengerke T: Obesity and health-related quality of life: Does social support moderate existing associations? Br J Health Psychol, 14 (Pt 4): 717-734. Nov 2009.
 
[67]  Wilkinson N: An introduction to behavioral economics. Besingstoke, Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan; 2008.
 
[68]  Wille N, Bullinger M, Holl R, Hoffmeister U, Mann R, Goldapp C, Reinehr T, Westenhöfer J, Egmond-Froehlich A, Ravens-Sieberer U: Health-related quality of life in overweight and obese youths: Results of a multicenter study. Health Qual Life Outcomes, 8 (36). Apr 2010.
 
[69]  Xin Z, Liu G: Homo economicus belief inhibits trust. PLOS ONE, 8 (10):e76671.Oct 2013.