Journal of Aquatic Science
ISSN (Print): ISSN Pending ISSN (Online): ISSN Pending Website: Editor-in-chief: Hanaa Abd El Baky
Open Access
Journal Browser
Journal of Aquatic Science. 2016, 4(1), 1-10
DOI: 10.12691/jas-4-1-1
Open AccessArticle

Species Composition, Abundance and Distribution of Seawater Bugs (Order Hemiptera: Class Insecta) in Badian, Cebu, Philippines

Fidel E. Bendanillo1, , Rosemarie R. Yurong2, Noel D. Roble2, Jonie C. Yee2 and Filipina B. Sotto2

1Entomological Collections, University of San Carlos, Talamban, Cebu City 6000 Philippines

2Department of Biology, University of San Carlos, Talamban, Cebu City 6000 Philippines

Pub. Date: March 25, 2016

Cite this paper:
Fidel E. Bendanillo, Rosemarie R. Yurong, Noel D. Roble, Jonie C. Yee and Filipina B. Sotto. Species Composition, Abundance and Distribution of Seawater Bugs (Order Hemiptera: Class Insecta) in Badian, Cebu, Philippines. Journal of Aquatic Science. 2016; 4(1):1-10. doi: 10.12691/jas-4-1-1


The presence of seawater bugs in the coastal area is an indicator of good water quality and stable mangrove habitat. As energy source of other organisms, their role in the food chain (Chen et al., 2005) makes them important in the marine ecosystem. This study was conducted in order to know the species occurrence, abundance and distribution and their relationships with the physicochemical parameters such as light, humidity, temperature, pH, salinity, dissolved oxygen, nitrite, nitrate and phosphate that would affect their population to fluctuate or change. In the sampling sites, a quadrat sampling method was used for collections and gathering of data. Results indicated that 824 adult bugs composed of 4 Families, 8 Genera and 13 Species were found. The species were Halobates calyptus, Halobates hayanus, Halobates proavus, Pseudohalobates inobonto and Stenobates sangihi of the Family Gerridae; Haloveloides femoralis, Halovelia esakii, Halovelia malaya, Halovelia bergrothii, Xenobates sp. 1 and Xenobates sp. 2 of the Family Veliidae; Hermatobates marcheii of the Family Hermatobatidae and Corallocoris marksae of the Family Omaniidae. The most abundant was H. femoralis and the species were not associated each other and showed clumped pattern of distribution. Pearson's r- correlation coefficient showed that the effect of light, temperature, dissolved oxygen and phosphate level had a strong relationship with the abundance and distribution of bugs. This means that the higher the relative humidity, temperature, dissolved oxygen and phosphate concentration the higher was the number of bugs. The lower the pH, salinity, nitrate and nitrite the higher the number of seawater bugs. However, the mangrove forest in Badian is still stable.

seawater bugs composition abundance distribution physicochemical parameters

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit


Figure of 4


[1]  Andersen, N. M., 1989. The coral bugs, genus Halovelia Bergroth (Hemiptera, Veliidae). II.Taxonomy of the H. Malaya group, cladistic, ecology, biology, and biogeography. Ent. Scand. 20(2): 179-228.
[2]  Andersen, N. M., 1999. Marine water striders (Heteroptera, Gerromorpha) of the Indo-pacific: cladistic biogeography and rticle palaeogeography. Pp 341-354.
[3]  Andersen, N. M. and Cheng, L. 2004. The marine insect Halobates (Heteroptera: Gerridae): biology, adaptations, distribution and phylogeny. Oceanography and Marine Biology: An Annual Review. 42: 119-180.
[4]  Anthoni, J. F. 2006. The chemical composition of seawater. Retrieved from http:/
[5]  Bhatnagar, A and Pooja Devi. 2013. Water quality guidelines for the management of fish culture. International Journal of Environmental Sciences. Volume 3, No. 6. Retrieved from http://www.ipublishing.comm/ijesarticles/thirteen/articles/volth ree/EIJES31197.pdf.
[6]  Camargo, J. A., Alonso A. and A. Salamanca. 2004. Nitrate toxicity to aquatic animals: A review with new data for freshwater invertebrates. Chemosphere. Vol. 58, Issue 9: pp. 1255-1267. Retrieved from
[7]  Camargo J. A. and Alonso A. 2006. Ecological and toxicological effects of inorganic nitrogen pollution in aquatic ecosystems; A global assessment. Environmental International. 32. 831- 849. Retrieved from ecocampus/docs/6.pdf.
[8]  Cariaso, B., 1995. Freshwater insects in the Philippines. Paper presented during the First National Symposium Workshop on Aquatic Biology R&D, PCAMRD at the Lakeview Resort Hotel. 1-11.
[9]  Castillo-Rivera, M. 2013. Influence of rainfall pattern in the seasonal variation of fish abundance in a tropical estuary with restricted marine communication. Journal of Water Resource and Protection. Retrieved from
[10]  Cheng, L., 1972. Notes. Can Halobates dodge nets? I. By daylight? Abstract. Retrieved from
[11]  Cheng, L., M. Douek, and D. Goring. 1978. UV absorption by gerrid cuticles. Limnol.Oceanogr. 23: 554-556.
[12]  Cheng, L, M. A. Baars and S. S. Oosterhius. 1990. Halobates in the Banda (Indonesia): monsoonal differences in abundance and species composition. Bulletin of Marine Science. 47(2): 421-430.
[13]  Chen, P., N. Nieser and H. Zettel. 2005. The aquatic and semi- aquatic bugs (Heteroptera:Nepomorpha and Gerromorpha) of Malesia. Fauna Malesiana. Brill.Handbook.1-546.
[14]  Cohen, L., P. Jarvis and J. Fowler. 1998. Practical statistics for field biology. 2nd Edition. 1-257.
[15]  Damker, M. D. 1980. Possible influences of solar UV radiation in the evolution of Marine zooplankton. Proceedings NATO Conference on UV & Marine Ecosystems. National Marine Fisheries Service/ National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Manchester, WA 98353 U.S.A. University of Washington WB-10, Seattle, WA 98195 USA.
[16]  English, S., Wilkinson, C., and V. Baker. 1997. Survey Manual for Tropical Marine Resources. 2nd Edition. Habitat Classification and Mapping. Retrieved from
[17]  Evans, J.D. 1996. Straightforward Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences. Brooks/Cole Publishing; Pacific Grove, Calif.: 1996.
[18]  Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), 1994. Mangrove forest management guidelines. 117 pp.
[19]  Foster, W.F. 1989. Zonation, behavior and morphology of the intertidal coral-Treader Hermatobates (Hemiptera: Hermatobatidae) in the south-exist Pacific. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society. Vol. 96: 87-105.
[20]  Gapud, V., 1986. Waterbugs. Guide to Philippine flora and fauna. Natural Resources Management Center. Ministry of Natural Resources and University of the Philippines. 8(1): 1- 47.
[21]  Harris J.M and Vinobaba P. 2012. Impact of Water Quality on Species Composition and Seasonal Fluctuation of Planktons of Batticaloa Lagoon, Sri Lanka. J Ecosyst Ecogr 2:4 Retrieved from
[23]  Ikawa T, S., O. Hidehiko, H. Sugihiko and L. Cheng. 2007. Occurrence and density of Halobates micans (Hemiptera: Gerridae) in the eastern South Indian Ocean. The Entomological Society. 10(2): 213-215.
[24]  Kazuo Abe. 2007. Variation in the phosphate concentration in surface seawater of Urasoko Bay, Ishigaki sland, Japan. Galaxes, JCRS, 8: 117-122. Retrieved from
[25]  Lake Access an Impact Metro Project. Seeing below the surface.
[26]  Mc Gavin, G.C., 2000. Insects: spiders and other terrestrial arthropods. Dorling Kindersley Handbooks. pp. 1-255.
[27]  Nummelin, M., M. Lodenius and E. Tulisalo. 1998. Water striders (Heteroptera, Gerridae) as bioindicators of heavy metal pollution. Entomologoica Fennica. Volume 8.185-191.
[28]  Palumo, John C. 2011. Weather and Insects. Integrated Pest Mgt.. Vol. 2, No.6. Retrieved in
[29]  Polhemus, J. T. and D. A. Polhemus. 1989. Introduction to the Leptodomorpha of Thailand and adjacent countries. Amemboa: news and results on Heteroptera of Thailand. 3: 14-21.
[30]  Posa, M. R., A. C. Diesmos., N. S. Sodhi and T. M. Brook. 2008. Hope for the threatened tropical biodiversity: Lesson from the Philippines. BioScience. 58(3): 231-240.
[31]  Rissik, D., Ho Shon, E., Brook, N., Baird, M. E. and Suthers, L. M. 2009. Plankton dynamics due to rainfall, eutrophication, dilution, grazing and assimilation in an urbanized coastal lagoon. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science. Vol. 84. Issue 1. pp. 99-107. Retrieved from
[32]  Savopoulou-Soultani, M., Papadopoulos N. T., Milonas, P. and Pascal Moyal, P. 2012. Abiotic Factors and Insect Abundance. Psyche. Vol. 12. Article ID 167420. Retrieved From
[33]  Stoner, A.W, and Humphris, S. E. 1985.Abundance and distribution of Halobates micans (Insecta: Gerridae) in the northwest Atlantic. DeepSea Research Part A. Oceanographic. 32(6): 733-739
[34]  Tait, R. V., 1986. Elements of ecology. 3rd Edition. pp. 21-22.
[35]  Tanaka, K. and Choo P. 1999. Influences of nutrient outwelling from the mangrove swamp on the distribution of phytoplankton in the Matang Mangrove Estuary, Malaysia. National Research Institute of Fisheries Science. Department of Fisheries, 11960 Batu Maung, Penang, Malaysia, Retrieved from
[36]  Valenzuela, H.Y., Bacalso, A. D., Gano, C. B., Pilones, K. D. and Picardal, J. P. 2013. The Species Composition and Associated Flora and Fauna of the Mangrove Forest in Badian, Cebu Island, Philippines. AMURE: International Journal of Marine Ecology,┬áVol 1, No 1.
[37]  Williams, D.D. and Feltamate, B. W. 1992. Aquatic Insects. International, Red wood Press. Ltd. pp. 358.
[38]  Zegerius, R. 1997. Effects of light intensity on biomass and abundance of invertebrates in detrital zones of a Northern Michigan stream ecosystem. General Ecology. Retrieved from
[39]  Zettel, H., 1998. Diversity and distribution of Philippine Veliidae: Heteroptera: Hebridae. Paper presented during the 6th European Congress of Entomology. pp. 406-472.
[40]  Zettel, H., 2001. The true aquatic bugs (Nepomorpha), the semiaquatic bugs (Gerromorpha), and the shore bugs (Leptopodomorpha) (Insecta: Heteroptera) of the Philippine islands: identification keys tot families and genera, and notes on morphology, natural history, species diversity and distribution. Guide. pp1-31.
[41]  Zettel, H., 2003. Notes on the marine Haloveliinae (Insecta: Heteroptera: Veliidae) of the Philippines, with descriptions of four new species, identification key, and classification of all species of Haloveloides Andersen, 1992. Ann. Naturalist. Mus. Wien. 104 B. 163-181.
[42]  Zettel, H. 2004. Hebrus murphyi, new species (Heteroptera: Hebridae) from intertidal mangrove habitat in Burias Island, Philippines. The Raffles Bulletin of Zoology. 52(1): 75-77. Retrieve from
[43]  Zettel, H. and Tran A. D., 2009. First inventory of the water bugs (Heteroptera: Nepomorpha: Gerromorpha) of Langkawi Island, Kedah, Malaysia. The Raffles Bulletin of Zoology. 57 (2): 279-295.