Journal of Atmospheric Pollution
ISSN (Print): 2381-2982 ISSN (Online): 2381-2990 Website: http://www.sciepub.com/journal/jap Editor-in-chief: Ki-Hyun Kim
Open Access
Journal Browser
Go
Journal of Atmospheric Pollution. 2017, 5(1), 24-32
DOI: 10.12691/jap-5-1-4
Open AccessArticle

Particulate Matter and Staff Exposure in an Air-Conditioned Office in Akwa Ibom State University – Nigeria

Aniefiok E. Ite1, 2, , Clement O. Ogunkunle3, Clement O. Obadimu1, Ekpedeme R. Asuaiko4 and Udo J. Ibok1

1Department of Chemistry, Akwa Ibom State University, P. M. B. 1017, Uyo, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria

2Research and Development Unit, Akwa Ibom State University, P. M. B. 1017, Uyo, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria

3Environmental Biology Unit, Department of Plant Biology, University of Ilorin, Nigeria

4Department of Geology, Akwa Ibom State University, P. M. B. 1017, Uyo, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria

Pub. Date: May 13, 2017

Cite this paper:
Aniefiok E. Ite, Clement O. Ogunkunle, Clement O. Obadimu, Ekpedeme R. Asuaiko and Udo J. Ibok. Particulate Matter and Staff Exposure in an Air-Conditioned Office in Akwa Ibom State University – Nigeria. Journal of Atmospheric Pollution. 2017; 5(1):24-32. doi: 10.12691/jap-5-1-4

Abstract

Indoor air quality parameters were investigated in an occupied air–conditioned office and unoccupied air–conditioned office located in the Faculty of Natural and Applied Sciences Complex in Akwa Ibom State University – Nigeria, during the rainy (June – July) and dry (November – December) seasons of 2016. Particulate matter (PM1, PM2, PM5, PM10), temperature, relative humidity, carbon monoxide (CO) and carbon dioxide (CO2) levels were simultaneously measured in fourteen (14) sampling days using Fluke 985 Particle Counter and Fluke 975 AirMeter. The concentrations of particulate matter in the occupied air–conditioned office during the rainy season ranged from 5152 – 5984 μg/m3 for PM1; 2744 – 3015 μg/m3 for PM2; 137 – 149 μg/m3 for PM5 and 36 – 50 μg/m3 for PM10 and in the unoccupied air–conditioned office, the concentrations of particulate matter ranged from 1898 – 2556 μg/m3 for PM1; 987 – 1311 μg/m3 for PM2; 38 – 59 μg/m3 for PM5 and 15 – 24 μg/m3 for PM10. During the dry season, the concentrations of particulate matter in the occupied air–conditioned office ranged from 5852 – 6510 μg/m3 for PM1; 4490 – 4992 μg/m3 for PM2; 335 – 362 μg/m3 for PM5 and 59 – 69 μg/m3 for PM10 and in the unoccupied air–conditioned office, the concentrations of particulate matter ranged from 2598 – 3112 μg/m3 for PM1; 1168 – 1694 μg/m3 for PM2; 153 – 257 μg/m3 for PM5 and 29 – 42 μg/m3 for PM10. This study has revealed that the particulate matter (PM1, PM2, PM5, PM10) concentrations in an occupied air–conditioned office were significantly (P < 0.001) higher than those obtained in unoccupied air–conditioned office during both rainy and dry seasons. However, the concentrations of PM10 obtained in the present study were found to be much lower than the ambient maximum contaminant level for airborne PM10 standard promulgated by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) (150 μg/m3 daily average and 50 μg/m3 annual average) and World Health Organization (WHO) PM10 guidelines values (50 μg/m3 daily average and 20 μg/m3 annual average). Although there were no significant relationships among PM1, PM2, PM5, and PM10 in occupied air-conditioned office, correlation analysis indicated that PM1, PM2 and PM5 were significantly correlated at P < 0.01 in unoccupied air-conditioned office and correlation coefficients were different. Apart from suspended atmospheric dust and settling dust, human activities in the occupied air–conditioned office significantly influenced the particulate matter concentrations obtained compared to those obtained in unoccupied air–conditioned office in both rainy and dry seasons. Although the concentrations of CO and CO2 were below detection limit (BDL), they indicated adequate air exchange at the time of the assessment in the air–conditioned office during the sampling period. The results obtained have revealed important contributions towards the understanding of particulate matter distribution patterns and provided baseline data that can be used for potential identification of human health risks associated with airborne particulate matter in air–conditioned offices in Akwa Ibom State University – Nigeria.

Keywords:
indoor air quality particulate matter air-conditioned office staff exposure Akwa Ibom State University

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

References:

[1]  Wiseman, C. L. S., and F. Zereini, “Part I - Airborne Particulate Matter: Sources, Composition and Concentration,” Urban Airborne Particulate Matter: Origin, Chemistry, Fate and Health Impacts, F. Zereini and C. L. S. Wiseman, eds., pp. 1-2, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2011.
 
[2]  Pöschl, U., “Atmospheric Aerosols: Composition, Transformation, Climate and Health Effects,” Angewandte Chemie International Edition, 44 (46). 7520-7540, 2005.
 
[3]  Hinds, W. C., Aerosol Technology: Properties, Behavior, and Measurement of Airborne Particles: Wiley, 2012.
 
[4]  Cohen, A. J., H. R. Anderson, B. Ostro, K. D. Pandey, M. Krzyzanowski, N. Künzli, K. Gutschmidt, C. Pope III, I. Romieu, and J. M. Samet, “Urban Air Pollution,” Comparative Quantification of Health Risks: Global and Regional Burden of Disease Attributable to Selected Major Risk Factors, M. Ezzati, A. Lopez, A. Rodgers and C. J. L. Murray, eds., pp. 1353-1433, Geneva: World Health Organization, 2004.
 
[5]  Celo, V., and E. Dabek-Zlotorzynska, “Concentration and Source Origin of Trace Metals in PM2.5 Collected at Selected Canadian Sites within the Canadian National Air Pollution Surveillance Program,” Urban Airborne Particulate Matter: Origin, Chemistry, Fate and Health Impacts, F. Zereini and C. L. S. Wiseman, eds., pp. 19-38, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2011.
 
[6]  Iavicoli, I., V. Leso, L. Fontana, and A. Bergamaschi, “Occupational Exposure to Urban Airborne Particulate Matter: A Review on Environmental Monitoring and Health Effects,” Urban Airborne Particulate Matter: Origin, Chemistry, Fate and Health Impacts, F. Zereini and C. L. S. Wiseman, eds., pp. 501-525, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2011.
 
[7]  Jahn, H. J., A. Schneider, S. Breitner, R. Eißner, M. Wendisch, and A. Krämer, “Particulate matter pollution in the megacities of the Pearl River Delta, China – A systematic literature review and health risk assessment,” International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health, 214 (4). 281-295, 2011.
 
[8]  Calkovska, A., and E. Herting, “Exogenous surfactant in respiratory distress syndrome,” Applied Technologies in Pulmonary Medicine, A. M. Esuinas, ed., pp. 205-209, Basel: Karger Publishers, 2010.
 
[9]  Frew, A. J., S. R. Doffman, K. Hurt, and R. Buxton-homas, “Respiratory Disease,” Kumar & Clark Clinical Medicine, P. J. Kumar and M. L. Clark, eds., pp. 791-866, Saunders: Elsevier 2005.
 
[10]  Kim, K.-H., E. Kabir, and S. Kabir, “A review on the human health impact of airborne particulate matter,” Environment International, 74 136-143, 2015.
 
[11]  Guaita, R., M. Pichiule, T. Mate, C. Linares, and J. Diaz, “Short-term impact of particulate matter (PM(2.5)) on respiratory mortality in Madrid,” International Journal of Environmental Health Research, 21 (4). 260-274, 2011.
 
[12]  Janssen, N. A. H., P. Fischer, M. Marra, C. Ameling, and F. R. Cassee, “Short-term effects of PM2.5, PM10 and PM2.5–10 on daily mortality in the Netherlands,” Science of the Total Environment, 463-464 20-26, 2013.
 
[13]  Halonen, J. I., T. Lanki, T. Yli-Tuomi, P. Tiittanen, M. Kulmala, and J. Pekkanen, “Particulate air pollution and acute cardiorespiratory hospital admissions and mortality among the elderly,” Epidemiology, 20 (1). 143-153, 2009.
 
[14]  Du, Y., X. Xu, M. Chu, Y. Guo, and J. Wang, “Air particulate matter and cardiovascular disease: the epidemiological, biomedical and clinical evidence,” Journal of Thoracic Disease, 8 (1). E8-E19, 2016.
 
[15]  Brook, R. D., S. Rajagopalan, C. A. Pope, J. R. Brook, A. Bhatnagar, A. V. Diez-Roux, F. Holguin, Y. Hong, R. V. Luepker, and M. A. Mittleman, “Particulate matter air pollution and cardiovascular disease,” Circulation, 121 (21). 2331-2378, 2010.
 
[16]  Pope, C. A., and D. W. Dockery, “Health Effects of Fine Particulate Air Pollution: Lines that Connect,” Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association, 56 (6). 709-742, 2006.
 
[17]  Davidson, C. I., R. F. Phalen, and P. A. Solomon, “Airborne Particulate Matter and Human Health: A Review,” Aerosol Science and Technology, 39 (8). 737-749, 2005.
 
[18]  Linares, C., and J. Diaz, “Short-term effect of concentrations of fine particulate matter on hospital admissions due to cardiovascular and respiratory causes among the over-75 age group in Madrid, Spain,” Public Health, 124 (1). 28-36, 2010.
 
[19]  Strak, M., G. Hoek, M. Steenhof, E. Kilinc, K. J. Godri, I. Gosens, I. S. Mudway, R. van Oerle, H. M. H. Spronk, F. R. Cassee, F. J. Kelly, R. M. Harrison, B. Brunekreef, E. Lebret, and N. A. H. Janssen, “Components of ambient air pollution affect thrombin generation in healthy humans: the RAPTES project,” Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 70 (5). 332-340, 2013.
 
[20]  Heudorf, U., V. Neitzert, and J. Spark, “Particulate matter and carbon dioxide in classrooms – The impact of cleaning and ventilation,” International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health, 212 (1). 45-55, 2009.
 
[21]  Graudenz, G. S., C. H. Oliveira, A. Tribess, C. Mendes, M. R. D. O. Latorre, and J. Kalil, “Association of air-conditioning with respiratory symptoms in office workers in tropical climate,” Indoor Air, 15 (1). 62-66, 2005.
 
[22]  Niu, J., “Some significant environmental issues in high-rise residential building design in urban areas,” Energy and Buildings, 36 (12). 1259-1263, 2004.
 
[23]  Chatoutsidou, S. E., J. Ondráček, O. Tesar, K. Tørseth, V. Ždímal, and M. Lazaridis, “Indoor/outdoor particulate matter number and mass concentration in modern offices,” Building and Environment, 92 462-474, 2015.
 
[24]  Sangiorgi, G., L. Ferrero, B. S. Ferrini, C. Lo Porto, M. G. Perrone, R. Zangrando, A. Gambaro, Z. Lazzati, and E. Bolzacchini, “Indoor airborne particle sources and semi-volatile partitioning effect of outdoor fine PM in offices,” Atmospheric Environment, 65 205-214, 2013.
 
[25]  Szigeti, T., Z. Kertész, C. Dunster, F. J. Kelly, G. Záray, and V. G. Mihucz, “Exposure to PM2.5 in modern office buildings through elemental characterization and oxidative potential,” Atmospheric Environment, 94 44-52, 2014.
 
[26]  Wolkoff, P., “Indoor air pollutants in office environments: Assessment of comfort, health, and performance,” International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health, 216 (4). 371-394, 2013.
 
[27]  Fromme, H., D. Twardella, S. Dietrich, D. Heitmann, R. Schierl, B. Liebl, and H. Rüden, “Particulate matter in the indoor air of classrooms—exploratory results from Munich and surrounding area,” Atmospheric Environment, 41 (4). 854-866, 2007.
 
[28]  Goyal, R., and M. Khare, “Indoor–outdoor concentrations of RSPM in classroom of a naturally ventilated school building near an urban traffic roadway,” Atmospheric Environment, 43 (38). 6026-6038, 2009.
 
[29]  Tippayawong, N., P. Khuntong, C. Nitatwichit, Y. Khunatorn, and C. Tantakitti, “Indoor/outdoor relationships of size-resolved particle concentrations in naturally ventilated school environments,” Building and Environment, 44 (1). 188-197, 2009.
 
[30]  Chithra, V. S., and S. M. Shiva Nagendra, “Indoor air quality investigations in a naturally ventilated school building located close to an urban roadway in Chennai, India,” Building and Environment, 54 159-167, 2012.
 
[31]  Thatcher, T. L., and D. W. Layton, “Deposition, resuspension, and penetration of particles within a residence,” Atmospheric Environment, 29 (13). 1487-1497, 1995.
 
[32]  Mendell, M. J., and G. A. Heath, “Do indoor pollutants and thermal conditions in schools influence student performance? A critical review of the literature,” Indoor Air, 15 (1). 27-52, 2005.
 
[33]  Shendell, D. G., R. Prill, W. J. Fisk, M. G. Apte, D. Blake, and D. Faulkner, “Associations between classroom CO2 concentrations and student attendance in Washington and Idaho,” Indoor Air, 14 (5). 333-341, 2004.
 
[34]  Seppänen, O. A., W. J. Fisk, and M. J. Mendell, “Association of Ventilation Rates and CO2 Concentrations with Health andOther Responses in Commercial and Institutional Buildings,” Indoor Air, 9 (4). 226-252, 1999.
 
[35]  Daisey, J. M., W. J. Angell, and M. G. Apte, “Indoor air quality, ventilation and health symptoms in schools: an analysis of existing information,” Indoor Air, 13 (1). 53-64, 2003.
 
[36]  Ramachandran, G., J. L. Adgate, S. Banerjee, T. R. Church, D. Jones, A. Fredrickson, and K. Sexton, “Indoor air quality in two urban elementary schools--measurements of airborne fungi, carpet allergens, CO2, temperature, and relative humidity,” Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, 2 (11). 553-566, 2005.
 
[37]  Godwin, C., and S. Batterman, “Indoor air quality in Michigan schools,” Indoor Air, 17 (2). 109-121, 2007.
 
[38]  Polednik, B., “Particulate matter and student exposure in school classrooms in Lublin, Poland,” Environmental Research, 120. 134-139, 2013.
 
[39]  Parker, J. L., R. R. Larson, E. Eskelson, E. M. Wood, and J. M. Veranth, “Particle size distribution and composition in a mechanically ventilated school building during air pollution episodes,” Indoor Air, 18 (5). 386-393, 2008.
 
[40]  WHO, Air Quality Guidelines: Global Update 2005: Particulate Matter, Ozone, Nitrogen dioxide, and Sulfur dioxide, Copenhagen, Denmark: World Health Organization, 2006.
 
[41]  Gusten, J., and O. Strindehag, “Experiences of measures taken to improve the air quality in schools,” Air Infiltration Review, 16 (3). 5-8, 1995.
 
[42]  Offor, I. F., G. U. Adie, and G. R. E. E. Ana, “Review of Particulate Matter and Elemental Composition of Aerosols at Selected Locations in Nigeria from 1985 – 2015,” Journal of Health and Pollution, 6 (10). 1-18, 2016.
 
[43]  Efe, S. I., “Spatial distribution of particulate air pollution in Nigerian cities: Implications for human health,” Journal of Environmental Health Research, 7 (2). 107-116, 2008.
 
[44]  Lee, S. C., and M. Chang, “Indoor and outdoor air quality investigation at schools in Hong Kong,” Chemosphere, 41 (1–2). 109-113, 2000.
 
[45]  Chan, L. Y., W. L. Lau, S. C. Lee, and C. Y. Chan, “Commuter exposure to particulate matter in public transportation modes in Hong Kong,” Atmospheric Environment, 36 (21). 3363-3373, 2002.
 
[46]  Lam, G. C. K., D. Y. C. Leung, M. Niewiadomski, S. W. Pang, A. W. F. Lee, and P. K. K. Louie, “Street-level concentrations of nitrogen dioxide and suspended particulate matter in Hong Kong,” Atmospheric Environment, 33 (1). 1-11, 1998.