Journal of Atmospheric Pollution
ISSN (Print): 2381-2982 ISSN (Online): 2381-2990 Website: Editor-in-chief: Ki-Hyun Kim
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Journal of Atmospheric Pollution. 2016, 4(1), 1-14
DOI: 10.12691/jap-4-1-1
Open AccessCase Study

An Integrated Vehicular Emission Control Programme for the City of Delhi Using Retrofitted Emission Control Technologies

R. Gopalaswami1,

1Formerly Chairman & Managing Director, Bharat Dynamics Ltd Hyderabad, India

Pub. Date: May 07, 2016

Cite this paper:
R. Gopalaswami. An Integrated Vehicular Emission Control Programme for the City of Delhi Using Retrofitted Emission Control Technologies. Journal of Atmospheric Pollution. 2016; 4(1):1-14. doi: 10.12691/jap-4-1-1


The City of Delhi, with a human population of over 16 million has nearly 9 million vehicles on its roads running over 100 billion kilometers every year, spewing out nearly 4 million tonnes of fuel emissions into the atmosphere every year (9900 tonnes per day). About 2 to 5% of these emissions (about 200 to 500 tonnes per day) are in the form of highly toxic gases and particulate matter hazardous to human health and well being. This does not include tyre wear out on Delhi roads which further adds nearly 6000 tonnes of rubber per year (about 16 tonnes per day!) into that contributes greatly to hazardous, dense, black carbon particles that tend to remain near the ground causing serious respiratory and heart diseases. Delhi is now characterized as among the world’s most polluted city. Analysis of 24x7 annual trend ( for the year 2015) of multiple factors resulting in air pollution in Delhi indicates that it seems unlikely that traffic volume reduction alone will have a very significant impact on reducing air pollution especially in winter months. The problem of air pollution needs to be addressed retroactively at its technological root viz. the combustion process in internal combustion engines. Nearly 70% of air pollution in the City is due to vehicle emissions; the rest being from thermal power stations, industries, and open fires in winter. This paper recommends a comprehensive, sustainable and very affordable Vehicular Emission Control Regime, which will be a large technical challenge requiring a systems-based approach to address emission emitting vehicles. Fourteen enabling new and advanced technologies are identified for immediate test, evaluation, and deployment where found suitable based on a prioritized assessment of each vehicle’s need. Several of these advanced technologies have already been fully developed and extensively certified in India in civil R&D. A technology upgradation and its management strategy has been recommended to significantly reduce all hazardous emissions to about 55% of the current measured values within 5-7 years both in summer and winter, enabling turning around of this city to safe vehicular emission levels. A global long term (15-20 years) zero emission vehicle technology strategy is also reviewed. Innovative collaborative emission control programme management structures are also recommended to be realized in three stages, addressing both technical and non-technical factors that currently enhance air pollution in Delhi.

vehicular air pollution systems approach to emission control catalytic converters Non-thermal plasma devices retrofitment zero emission vehicles

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