Journal of Applied & Environmental Microbiology
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Journal of Applied & Environmental Microbiology. 2017, 5(1), 31-46
DOI: 10.12691/jaem-5-1-4
Open AccessReview Article

Microbial β-Glucosidase: Sources, Production and Applications

Amer Ahmed1, , Faiz ul-Hassan Nasim2, Kashfa Batool2 and Aasia Bibi2

1Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Bahawalpur, Pakistan

2Department of Chemistry, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Bahawalpur, Pakistan

Pub. Date: March 30, 2017

Cite this paper:
Amer Ahmed, Faiz ul-Hassan Nasim, Kashfa Batool and Aasia Bibi. Microbial β-Glucosidase: Sources, Production and Applications. Journal of Applied & Environmental Microbiology. 2017; 5(1):31-46. doi: 10.12691/jaem-5-1-4

Abstract

Cellulose is the most abundant biopolymer in biosphere and the major constituent of plant biomass. Cellulose polymer is made up of β-glucose units linked by β-glucosidic bonds. Cellulase is an enzymatic system that catalyzes the hydrolysis of cellulose polymer to glucose monomers. This enzymatic system consists of three individual enzymes namely endoglucanase, exoglucanase and β-glucosidase which act synergistically to degrade cellulose molecules into glucose. Cellulases are produced by bacteria, fungi, plants, and animals and used in many industrial applications such as textile industries, laundry and detergent industries, paper and pulp industry, animal feeds, and biofuels production. β-Glucosidase is a diverse group of enzymes with wide distribution in bacteria, fungi, plants and animals and has the potential to be utilized in various biotechnological processes such as biofuel production, isoflavone hydrolysis, flavor enhancement and alkyl/aryl β-D-glucoside and oligosaccharides synthesis. Thus, there is increased demand of β-glucosidase production from microbial sources under profitable industrial conditions. In this review, β-glucosidase classification, localization, and mechanism of action will be described. Subsequently, the various sources of β-glucosidase for industrial sector will be discussed. Moreover, Fermentation methods and various parameters affecting β-glucosidase production will be highlighted on the light of recent findings of different researchers. Finally, β-glucosidase applications in biofuel production, flavors enhancement, isoflavones hydrolysis, cassava detoxification and oligosaccharide synthesis will be described.

Keywords:
cellulose glycoside hydrolase cellulase β-glucosidase biofuel transglycosylation

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