Journal of Applied & Environmental Microbiology
ISSN (Print): 2373-6747 ISSN (Online): 2373-6712 Website: http://www.sciepub.com/journal/jaem Editor-in-chief: Sankar Narayan Sinha
Open Access
Journal Browser
Go
Journal of Applied & Environmental Microbiology. 2015, 3(4), 106-111
DOI: 10.12691/jaem-3-4-3
Open AccessArticle

Microbiological Safety Assessment of Groundwater Wells in Bugesera and Muhanga Districts of Rwanda

Wondatir Nigatu1, , Sabrina Gwira Kangeli2, Joseph Nsengimana1 and Antoine Nsabimana3

1Biology Department, University of Rwanda, College of Science and Technology, B.P. 3900, Kigali, Rwanda

2University of Rwanda, College of Science and Technology, B.P. 3900, Kigali, Rwanda

3Faculty of Science, University of Rwanda, College of Science and Technology, B.P. 3900, Kigali, Rwanda

Pub. Date: October 16, 2015

Cite this paper:
Wondatir Nigatu, Sabrina Gwira Kangeli, Joseph Nsengimana and Antoine Nsabimana. Microbiological Safety Assessment of Groundwater Wells in Bugesera and Muhanga Districts of Rwanda. Journal of Applied & Environmental Microbiology. 2015; 3(4):106-111. doi: 10.12691/jaem-3-4-3

Abstract

This study was conducted with the aim to monitor the suitability of the groundwater wells in Bugesera and Muhanga districts of Rwanda. As the quantity of water supplied by Rwandan Water and Sanitation Corporation ltd (WASAC) is not sufficient for the whole population in these districts, the people depend on groundwater as the main source of water. The microbial quality assessment made by this research on Bugesera district’s groundwater, obtained a number of total coliforms equaling to 132 MPN/100ml during dry season and 399 MPN/100ml during the rainy season with the fecal coliforms estimated to be 125 CFU/ml. In Muhanga district, total coliforms were estimated to be 125 MPN/100ml with the fecal coliforms estimated to be 115 CFU/ml. The microbial analysis results revealed the presence of Klebsiella, Escherichia coli, Shigella, Salmonella, M. morganii and Serratia spp in the groundwater wells of both districts confirming that groundwater wells are contaminated. Therefore, in order for this water to meet the standards of drinking water, it should be boiled or treated with chlorine before consumption and local authorities should be informed about the threats. Community participation and sensitization programs on how to obtain clean and safe water supply from groundwater need to be implemented by responsible stakeholders.

Keywords:
Groundwater wells microbial safety Most Probable Number (MPN) Colony Forming Unit (CFU) Muhanga district Bugesera district

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

References:

[1]  Facts about Global Groundwater Usage. [Online]. Available: http://www.ngwa.org/Fundamentals/use/Documents/global-groundwater-use-fact-sheet.pdf accessed on 18/08/2015. [Accessed 18/08/2015].
 
[2]  Igor, S.Z. and Lorne, G.E. Groundwater resources of the world and their use. 2004. [Online]. Available: http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0013/001344/134433e.pdf. [Last Accessed 17/12/2014].
 
[3]  aroslav, V. and Annukka, L. Groundwater Resources Sustainability Indicators. 2007. [Online]. Available at: http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0014/001497/149754e.pdf. [Last Accessed 17/12/2014].
 
[4]  CDC. Ground Water Awareness Week. 2014. [Online]. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/features/groundwaterawareness/. [Last Accessed 31 August 2014].
 
[5]  Fatoki, O.S., Muyima, N.Y. and Lujiza, N. Situation analysis of water quality in the Umtata river catchments. Water SA. 27, 467-473, 2001.
 
[6]  Ministry of Finance and Economic Planning, National Institute of Statistics of Rwanda. Fourth Population and Housing Census, Rwanda, 2012: Thematic Report Characteristics of households and housing. January 2014. [Online]. Available: http://www.lmis.gov.rw/scripts/publication/reports/Fourth%20Rwanda%20Population%20and%20 Housing%20Census_Housing.pdf [Accessed 15/08/2015].
 
[7]  Standard Total Coliform Fermentation Technique. [Online]. Available: https://www.norweco.com/html/lab/test_methods/9221bfp.htm [Accessed 15/08/2015].
 
[8]  Gram Stain Protocol. [Online]. Available: http://www.med-chem.com/pages/lab_procedures/pdf/gram_stain.pdf [Accessed 12/08/2015].
 
[9]  MacFaddin, J.F. Biochemical tests for identification of medical bacteria. 3rded. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Philadelphia, PA, 2000.
 
[10]  Identifying Unknown Bacteria Using Biochemical and Molecular Methods. [Online]. Available: http://www.nslc.wustl.edu/elgin/genomics/Bio3055/IdUnknBacteria06.pdf [Accessed 12/08/2015].
 
[11]  Mutuku, S. C. and Matolo, M. P. Temporal variation in coliform densities in groundwater supplies in a County Residential Estate. Annals of Biological Research, 5 (8):30-35, 2014. [Online]. Available at: (http://scholarsresearchlibrary.com/archive.html) [Accessed 12/08/2015].
 
[12]  WHO. Guidelines for drinking-water quality. (2nd ed.). MALTA, 1997. [Online]. Available: http://www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/dwq/gdwqvol32ed.pdf [Accessed 12/08/2015].
 
[13]  DOH. (2011). Dohwagov. [Online]. Available: http://www.doh.wa.gov/Portals/1/Documents/Pubs/331-181.pdf [Accessed 7 June, 2015].
 
[14]  Hassan, A. and Nawaz, M. Microbiological and physicochemical assessments of groundwater quality at Punjab, Pakistan. African Journal of Microbiology Research, 8(28), 2672-2681, 2014.
 
[15]  WHO. Microbial aspects. Guidelines for drinking water quality, Microbial aspects. 2006. [Online]. Available: http://www.academia.edu/6051932/Guidelines_for_Drinking-water_Quality_THIRD_EDITION_INCORPORATING_THE_FIRST_AND_SECOND_ADDENDA_Volume_1_Recommendations [Accessed 19/08/ 2015].
 
[16]  Micro Biological analysis of drinking water.pdf - auroville.info. [Online]. Available: www.auroville.info/ACUR/.../report_microbiological_tests_of_water.pdf [Accessed 19/08/ 2015].
 
[17]  Rutanga, J.P. Assessment of microbiological and physicochemical parameters of groundwater: A case study of Gikondo Industrial Park, Kigali, Rwanda. Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies & Management, 7(2), 153-159, 2014.
 
[18]  Health Canada. Guidelines for Canadian Drinking Water Quality: Guideline Technical Document - Total Coliforms; 2013. [Online]. Available: http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/ewh-semt/pubs/water-eau/coliforms-coliformes/index-eng.php [Accessed May 19, 2015].
 
[19]  Water Research Center. Water-research.net. 2014. [Online]. Available: http://www.water-research.net/index.php/e-coli-in-water. [Accessed 7 June, 2015].
 
[20]  Omari, S. D. and Yeboah-Manu. The Study of Bacterial Contamination of Drinking Water Sources: A Case Study Of Mpraeso, Ghana. The Internet Journal of Microbiology. Volume 10, Number 1, 1-6, 2012.
 
[21]  Chapman, D. Water Quality Assessments. A guide to use of biota, sediments and water in environmental monitoring, 2nd (ED). E&FN Spon; 417, 1996.
 
[22]  Guidelines for Canadian Drinking Water Quality. 2010. [Online]. Available: http://www.dieppe.ca/en/hoteldeville/resources/Canadiandrinkingwaterguidelines.pdf [Accessed 18/08/ 2015].
 
[23]  Howard, G., Chave, P., Bakir, P. and Hoque, B. Socioeconomic, institutional and legal aspects in groundwater assessment and protection. In: WHO. Protecting Groundwater for Health: Managing the Quality of Drinking-water Sources, IWA Publishing; 142, 2006.
 
[24]  Mahvi, A.H. and Karyab, H. Risk assessment for microbial pollution in drinking water in small community and relation to diarrhoea disease. American-Eurasian Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Science; 2 (4): 404-406, 2007.
 
[25]  WHO/UNICEF. Meeting the MDG drinking water and sanitation target: mid-term assessment of progress; 4, 6, 2004.
 
[26]  From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. 2015. Enterobacteriaceae. [Online]. Available: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Enterobacteriaceae [Accessed 18/08/ 2015].