Journal of Applied & Environmental Microbiology
ISSN (Print): 2373-6747 ISSN (Online): 2373-6712 Website: http://www.sciepub.com/journal/jaem Editor-in-chief: Sankar Narayan Sinha
Open Access
Journal Browser
Go
Journal of Applied & Environmental Microbiology. 2014, 2(6), 303-308
DOI: 10.12691/jaem-2-6-6
Open AccessArticle

Identification and Occurrence of Heterophilic Rumen Bacteria and Fungi Isolated from Selected Nigerian Breeds of Cattle

Aderonke Kofoworola Akintokun1, Olusoji Ishola Adeyosoye2, , Olanike Abiola-Olagunju3 and Elizabeth Omokoshi Joel4

1Department of Microbiology, Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria

2Department of Animal Sciences, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria

3Department of Home and Hotel Management, Olabisi Onabanjo University, Ayetoro, Nigeria

4Department of Animal Science, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria

Pub. Date: December 07, 2014

Cite this paper:
Aderonke Kofoworola Akintokun, Olusoji Ishola Adeyosoye, Olanike Abiola-Olagunju and Elizabeth Omokoshi Joel. Identification and Occurrence of Heterophilic Rumen Bacteria and Fungi Isolated from Selected Nigerian Breeds of Cattle. Journal of Applied & Environmental Microbiology. 2014; 2(6):303-308. doi: 10.12691/jaem-2-6-6

Abstract

The kinetics of fermentative activities in the rumen justified the need for microbial assessment of autochthonous members of rumen community before prolonged fermentation in the selected breeds of cattle commonly adapted to Nigerian environment. A total of four breeds of cattle were selected for this study comprising of both male and female sexes of Bunaji (White Fulani), Futumi (Keteku), Bokolo (N’dama) and Djeli (Sokoto Gudali) respectively. Total heterophilic bacteria (THB) on Nutrient agar (NA) ranged between 9.1×108 cfu/g - 125×1011 cfu/g with the highest count recorded for male Djeli (Dm) and the least count for female Djeli (Df) respectively. Total heterophilic fungi (THF) on Malt Extract (ME) agar recorded the highest count (6.0×105 spores/g) for female Bunaji (Bf) and no growth was observed for female Bokolo (Bkf). The rumen pH ranged between 5.65 and 6.90 for female Futumi (Ff) and male Bunaji (Bm) respectively. Significant differences (p<0.05) were observed for pH and total microbial counts based on sex. Standard methods of Colonial and biochemical assessments led to the isolation, characterization and identification of bacterial species of the genera; Klebsiella, Proteus, Pseudomonas and Shigella. Klebsiella edwardsii occured highest (24.24%) while Proteus morganella, Shigella dysentariae and Shigella sonnei occurred least (3.03%). Fungal species of the group; Aspergillus, Botrytis, Cladosporium, Cephalosporium, Paecilomyces, Penicillium, Pullularia, Rhizoctonia and Trichophyton were also isolated and identified. Aspergillus glaucus and Pullularia pullulans both occurred highest (17%) while A. fumigatus, A. niger, Botrytis spp., Cladosporium herbarium, Penicillium camemberti, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, T. rubrum and Rhizoctonia solani occurred least at the level of 5%. In conclusion, breed as a factor had significant effects on the type, population and percentage occurrence of rumen bacteria and fungi studied in this work. The use of fistulated animals is recommended for microbial screening at different stages of fermentation without the need to sacrifice the animals.

Keywords:
standard methods rumen fermentation cattle breeds rumen microbes percentage occurrence

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

Figures

Figure of 4

References:

[1]  Grubb, P. (2005). Artiodactyla. In: Wilson, D.E and Reeder, D.M. Manual! Species of the World. A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference. (3rd edition). John Hopkins Univ. Press. Baltimore, U.S.A. Pp. 637-722.
 
[2]  http:www.quora.com: Online Information on Culture and Religion of Indian People. Accessed on Sunday, 11th August, 2013.
 
[3]  Rassi, S.; Veijanen, A. and Rintala, J. (2007). Trace compounds of biogas from different biogas production plants. Energy, 32.
 
[4]  International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature, (2003). Opinion 2027 (case 3010). Usage of 17Δ 6T specific names based on wild species which are pre-dated by or contemporary with those based on domestic animals (Lepidoptera, Osteichthynes, mammals). Bull. Zool. Nomencl., 60: 81-84.
 
[5]  Edema, M. O., Atayese, A. O. and Bankole, M. O. (2011). Pure Water Syndrome: Bacteriological Quality of Sachet-packed Drinking Water Sold in Nigeria. African Journal of Food, Agric. Nutrition and Development. Rural Outreach Program. Vol. 11, Num. 1, Pp. 4595-4609.
 
[6]  DAGRIS, (2007). Domestic Animal Genetic Resources Information System (edited by S. Kempo, Y. Mamo, B. Astrat and T. Dessie). International Livestock Research Institute, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. http://dagris.ilri.cgiar.org
 
[7]  Yokoyama, M. T. and Johnson, K. A. (1993). Microbiology of the Rumen and Intestine in the Ruminant Animal: Digestive Physiology and Nutrition. D.C. Church, Edited by Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J. Pp. 125-144.
 
[8]  Malherbe, S. and Cloete, T. E. (2003). Lignocelluloses Biodegradation: Fundamentals and Applications: A Rev. Environ. Sci. Biotechnol. 1: 105-114.
 
[9]  Coker, A. O., Olugasa, B. O. and Adeyemi, A. O. (2001). Abattoir Wastewater Quality in South Western Nigeria. 27th WEDC Conference, Lusaka, Zambia.
 
[10]  Jacquelyn, Black, (1993). ‘Microbiology’ Prentice Hall. Pp. 334.
 
[11]  Buchman, R. E. and Gibbson, N. E. (2000). Berge’s Manual of Determinative Bacteriology (10th Edtn). The Williams and Wilkins Co., Baltimore.
 
[12]  Kebede F. (2005). Standard veterinary laboratory manual, Bacteriology, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development Animal Health Department, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Vol. 2:1-175.
 
[13]  Okore, V. C. (2004). Surface Viable Count Method. A Standard Laboratory Technique in Pharmaceutics and Pharmaceutical Microbiology. 2nd Edition. El’Denmark Puplishers. Pp. 24-26.
 
[14]  Cheesbrough, M. (2006). District Laboratory Practice in Tropical Countries. Cambridge University Press. Pp. 62.
 
[15]  SAS, (1999). SAS/STAT User’s Guid. Sas Institute Inc. Cary, North Caro,lina. USA.
 
[16]  Kamra, D. N. (2005). Rumen Microbial Ecosystem. Current Science. Vol. 89, No.1, Pp. 126. 10th July.
 
[17]  Ogunjobi, A. A, Ibekwe, A. C., Babayemi, O. J., and Fagade, O. E. (2010). Microbial Evaluation of Ensiled Guinea grass and] Albizia saman pods mixtures and its effects on rumen bacterial population using In Vitro Fermentation Technique. AUJ. T. 13 (4): 223-232.
 
[18]  Yen, H. W. and Brune, D. (2007). Aneorobic Co-digestion of Algae Sludge and Waste Paper to produce Methane. Bioresource Technology. 98: 130-134.
 
[19]  Schnǔrer, A. and Javis, A. (2010). Microbiological Handbook for Bioghas Plants. Avfall Sverige Press. Pp. 142.
 
[20]  Paul, S. S., Kamra, D. N., Sastry, V. R. B., Sahu, N. P. and Kumar, A. (2003). Effect of Phenolic Monomers on Growth and Hydrolytic Enzyme Activities of an Anaerobic Fungus Isolated from Wild Nilgai (Boselaphus tragocamelus). Letl. Appl. Microbiol., 36, 377-381.
 
[21]  Okareh, O., Adeolu, A. and Shittu, O. (2012). Enrichment of Pig Dung with Selected Crop-wastes for the Production of Biogas. Intl. Research Journal of Microbiology. 3 (7): 258-263.
 
[22]  Eze, J. and Agbo, K. (2010). Studies on the Microbial Spectrum in Anaerobic Biomethanisation of Cow Dung in 10m3 Fixed Dome Biogas. Intl. Journal of Physical Sciences. 5 (8): 1331-1337.
 
[23]  Borneman, W. S., Akin, D. E. and VanEseltine, W. P. (1992). Effect of phenolic monomers on ruminal bacteria. Appl. And Envronmental Microbiol. 52 (6): 1331-1339.
 
[24]  Akin, D. E. and Rigsby, L. L. (1987). Mixed fungal populations and biocellulosic tissue degradation in the bovine rumen. Applied Environmental Microbiology 53, 1987-1995.
 
[25]  Flint, Harry J. and Bayer, Edward, A. (2008). Plant Cell Wall Breakdown by Anaerobic Microorganisms from the Mammalian Digestive Tract. Incredible Anaerobes from Physiology to Genomics to Fuel. Vol. 125, Pp. 280-288. http:www.annalsnyas.org/cgi
 
[26]  Ferrell, C. L. and Jenkins, T. G. (1993). Energy Expenditures of Matured Cows during the Production Cycle. Beef Research Progress Report. Pp. 118. No. 4, USDA, Clay Centre, NE.
 
[27]  Vinneras, B., Nordin, A. and Schὃnnig, C. (2007). Microbiological community in biogas systems and evaluation of microbial risks from gas usage. Energy Report Wasser-praxix Conference, Sweden. Pp. 125.
 
[28]  Ugoji, E. and Bolarinwa, O. (2010). Production of Biogas from Starchy Wastes. Journal of Sci. Res. Dev., Vol. 12, 34-45.
 
[29]  Medicine, (2014). Morganella infections. An Online Publication, accessed on April 1st.
 
[30]  Singla Nidhi, Neelam Kaistha, Neelam Gulati and Jagdish, Chander (2010). Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine. 14: 154-155.
 
[31]  Lalucat, et al., Bennasar, A., Bosch, R., Garcia-Valdes, E. and Palleroni, N. J. (2006). ‘Biology of Psedomonas stutzeri’ Microbiol. Mol. Biol. Rev. 70 (2): 510-47.
 
[32]  Herold, S. and Karch, H. (2004). ‘Shiga Toxin-encoding Bacteriophages-Genomes in Motion’. Intl. Journal of Med. Microbiol. 294: 2-3: 115-121.
 
[33]  O’Hara, C. Mohr, Brenner, W. Francis and Miller, J. Michael (2014). Classification, Identification and Clinical Significance of Proteus, Providencia and Morganella. Vol. 27, Issue 2.
 
[34]  Lipuma, J. (2005). ‘Update on the B. cepacia Complex’. Curr. Opin Pulm Med. 11 (6): 528-33.
 
[35]  Mahenthiralingam, E., Urban, T. and Goldberg, J. (2005). The multifarious multireplicon B. cepacia complex. Nat. Rev. Micfrobiol. 3 (2): 144-56.
 
[36]  Hubka, V., Kolarik, M., Kubatova, A. and Peterson, S. W. (2013). Taxonomic Revision of Eurotium and Transfer of Species to Aspergillus. Mycologia 105(4): 912-37.
 
[37]  Cai, M., Zhou X., Lu, J., Fan, W., Zhou, J., Niu, C., Kang, L. Sun, X. and Zhang, Y. (2012). An Integrated Control Strategy for the Fermentation of the Marine-derived Fungus- Aspergillus glaucus for the Production of Anti-cancer Polyketides. Biotech. New York. 14 (6): 655-71.