Journal of Applied & Environmental Microbiology
ISSN (Print): 2373-6747 ISSN (Online): 2373-6712 Website: http://www.sciepub.com/journal/jaem Editor-in-chief: Sankar Narayan Sinha
Open Access
Journal Browser
Go
Journal of Applied & Environmental Microbiology. 2014, 2(6), 281-286
DOI: 10.12691/jaem-2-6-3
Open AccessArticle

Microbiological and Physicochemical Characteristics of Soil Contaminated With Used Petroleum Products in Umuahia, Abia State, Nigeria

Eze V.C.1, , Onwuakor C.E.1 and Orok F.E.1

1Department of Microbiology, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture Umudike, Umuahia, Nigeria

Pub. Date: November 12, 2014

Cite this paper:
Eze V.C., Onwuakor C.E. and Orok F.E.. Microbiological and Physicochemical Characteristics of Soil Contaminated With Used Petroleum Products in Umuahia, Abia State, Nigeria. Journal of Applied & Environmental Microbiology. 2014; 2(6):281-286. doi: 10.12691/jaem-2-6-3

Abstract

The discharge of used petroleum products from machines such as power generating sets, vehicles and motorcycles has become a major source of soil pollution around Umuahia metropolis. The objectives of this study were to assess the microbiological and physicochemical characteristics of soils contaminated with used petroleum products. A total of four (4) sampling sites (filling stations, vehicle mechanic workshop, motorcycle workshop and areas around power generating plants) were investigated. The total heterotrophic bacterial and fungal counts ranged from 1.6x107 to 1.9x108 CFU/g and 1.0x107 to 1.7x107 CFU/g respectively. The hydrocarbon utilizing bacterial and fungal counts ranged from 3.8x106 to 7.8x106 CFU/g and 1.0x106 to 1.4x106 CFU/g respectively. The bacterial isolates were Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp, Staphylococcus aureus, Micrococcus spp, Bacillus spp, Citrobacter spp and Streptococcus spp. Fungal isolates included Aspergillus spp, Cladosporium spp, Mucor spp, Rhizopus spp and Geotricum spp. The total organic carbon concentration ranged from 5.20 to 16.74 mg/kg and 4.81 mg/kg for control. The contamination also affected other physicochemical parameters such as sulphate, nitrate and phosphate and ranged from 28.70 to 63.71 mg/kg, 21.73 to 53.79 mg/kg and 1.24 to 3.54 mg/kg respectively compared to the control sample, 11.93 mg/kg, 5.39 mg/kg and 0.64 mg/kg respectively. The contamination increased calcium, sodium, potassium, magnesium, iron and zinc concentrations compared to the control and caused a reduction in pH. These adverse conditions have impacted negatively on soils around the polluted site could affect nutrient cycles and consequently affect vegetation around the area.

Keywords:
microbiological physicochemical contaminated petroleum products Umuahia Nigeria

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

References:

[1]  Raven, R., Berg, L.R and Johnson, G.B. Environment. Saunders College Publishing, Philadelphia. USA, 1993, p. 569.
 
[2]  Atlas, R.M. Microbial degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons: An environmental perspective. Microbiol. Rev. 1981, 45:180-209.
 
[3]  Facundo, J., M.R.., Vanessa, H.R and Teresa, M.L. Biodegradation of diesel oil in soil by a microbial consortium. Water Air Soil Pollut., 2001, 128: 313-320.
 
[4]  Kiyohara, H., Takizawa, N. and Nagao, K. Natural distribution of bacteria metabolizing many kinds of polyaromatic hydrocarbons. J. Ferment. Bioeng., 1992, 74: 49-51.
 
[5]  Johnson, K., Anderson, S and Jacobson, C.S. Phenotypic and genotypic characterisation of Phenanthrene-degrading fluorescent Pseudomonas biovars. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 1996, 62: 3815-3825.
 
[6]  Antai, S.P. Biodegradation of Bonny light crude oil by Bacillus species and Pseudomonas species. Waste Manage., 1990, 10: 61-64.
 
[7]  Bhattacharya, D., Sarma, P.M., Krishran, S., Mishra, S and Lai, B. Evaluation of genetic diversity among Pseudomonas catrorellois strains isolated from oily sludge-contaminated sites. Appl. Environ. Microbial. 2002, 69(3): 1435-1441.
 
[8]  Mills, A., Breuil, L.C. and Colwell, R.R. Enumeration of petroleum degrading marine and estuarine microorganisms by the most probable number method. Can. J. Microbiol., 1978, 24: 552-557.
 
[9]  Okpokwasili, G.C and Amanchukwu, S.C. Petroleum Hydrocarbon degradation by Candida Species. Environ. Intl., 1988, 14: 243-247.
 
[10]  Cheesbrough, M. District Laboratory Practice in Tropical Countries. Cambridge University Press, United Kingdom, 2005, pp. 30-41.
 
[11]  Adeoye, A. Medical Laboratory Practice, 1st edition FEMCO Publishers Limited, Lagos, Nigeria, 2007, p: 153.
 
[12]  Agwung-Fobellah, D and Kemajou, S.T. Laboratory Microbiology and Activity Manual, Ark of Wisdom Publishers, Aba, Nigeria, 2007, pp. 12-37.
 
[13]  Ochei, J.O and Kolhatkar, A.A. Medical Laboratory Science: Theory and Practice, Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Company Limited, New York, 2007, pp. 637-745.
 
[14]  Bergey’s Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th edition, Holt, J.D. (Ed.), Williams Wilkins CO. Baltimore, 1994, p. 783.
 
[15]  Barnett, H.L and Hunter, B.B. Illustrated genera of imperfecti fungi, 3rd edition Burgess Publishing Company, Minnesota, U.S.A, 1972, pp: 121.
 
[16]  Larone, B.H. Important Fungi: A Guide to Identification, Harper and Row Publishers, Hagerstown, Maryland, 1972, pp 7-26.
 
[17]  American Public Health Association (APHA). Standard methods for the examination of water and waste water, 21st Edition, Eaton, A.D., Clesceri, L.S., Rice, E.W., Greenberg, A.E., Franson, M.A.H. APHA, Washington, 2005.
 
[18]  ASTM. Standard Test Methods for Measurement of hydraulic Conductivity of Saturated Porous Materials Using Flexible Wall Perimeter, Standard d5084-03, American Society for Testing and Materials, Philadelphia, 2003.
 
[19]  Okoh, A.I. Biodegradation alternatives in the cleanup of petroleum hydrocarbon pollutants, Biotechnology and Molecular Biology Review, 2006, 1 (20): 38-50.
 
[20]  Atlas, R.M and Bartha, R. Microbial Ecology: Fundamentals and Applications, 4th Edition, Benjamin Cummings Publishing company Inc., Addison Wesley Longman Inc., 1998, Pp: 300-350.
 
[21]  Atlas, R.M and Cerniglia, C.E, Bioremediation of petroleum pollutants, Biological Science, 1995, 45 (5): 332-350.
 
[22]  Okerentugba, P.O and Ezeronye, O.U. Petroleum degrading potential of single and mixed microbial cultures isolated from rivers and refinery effluents in Nigeria. African Journal of Biotechnology, 2003, 2 (9): 288-292.
 
[23]  Amadi, A and Odu, C.T.I. Effect of stimulated chemical demulsifier contamination of soil on carbondioxide evolution and shift in microbial population in fresh water mangrove ecosystem, Int,l J. Biochemphysics, 1993, 2 (1-2): 97-99.
 
[24]  Obire, O and Nwanbet, O. Effects of refined petroleum hydrocarbon on soil physicochemical and bacteriological characteristics, J. Appl. Sci. Environ. Manage., 2002, 6 (1): 39-44.
 
[25]  Bartha, R. and Bossert, I. The treatment and disposal of petroleum waste. In: R.M. Atlas (Ed.) Petroleum Microbiology, Macmillan, New York, 1984, pp 553-577.
 
[26]  Bartha, R. and Atlas, R.M. The Microbiology of Aquatic oil Spills. Adv. Appl. Microbiol., 1977, 22: 225-226.
 
[27]  Calomiris, J.J., Austin, B., Walker, J and Colwell, R.R. Enrichment for Estuarine: Petroleum Degrading Bacteria using Liquid and Solid Media, J. Appl. Bacteriol., 1976, 41:135-144.
 
[28]  Bossert, I and Bartha, R. The fate of petroleum in soil ecosystems, In: R.M. Atlas (Ed.) Petroleum Microbiology, Macmillan, New York, 1984, pp. 435-473.
 
[29]  Alexander, M. An Introduction to Soil Microbiology, 2nd edition, John Wiley and Sons, New York, 1981, pp 19-50.
 
[30]  Eze, V.C., Agwung-Fobellah, D and Nnaji, K. Microbiological and Physicochemical characteristics of soils contaminated with used generator oil. Asian J. Sci. Technol., 2012, 4 (11): 20-25.
 
[31]  Kuenem, J.G., Robertson, L.A and Gemerden, H.V. Microbial interactions among aerobic and anaerobic sulphur-oxidizing bacteria. Adv. Microb. Ecol., 1985, 8: 1-59.
 
[32]  Atlas, R.M and Bartha, R. Microbial Ecology Fundamentals and Applications. Benjamin/Cumming Publishing Company, Inc., Menlo Park, California, 1992.
 
[33]  Nester, E.W., Anderson, D.G., Roberts, C.E., Pearsall, N.N and Nester, M.T. Microbiology: A Human Perspective. 3rd Edition, McGraw-Hill Companies Inc, United States, 2001, Pp 777.