Journal of Applied & Environmental Microbiology
ISSN (Print): 2373-6747 ISSN (Online): 2373-6712 Website: http://www.sciepub.com/journal/jaem Editor-in-chief: Sankar Narayan Sinha
Open Access
Journal Browser
Go
Journal of Applied & Environmental Microbiology. 2014, 2(4), 97-101
DOI: 10.12691/jaem-2-4-2
Open AccessArticle

Isolation, Identification and Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Pseudomonas spp. Isolated from Hospital Environment in Tonekabon, North of Iran

Masood Ghane1, and Zahra Azimi1

1Department of Microbiology, Tonekabon branch, Islamic azad University, Tonekabon, Iran

Pub. Date: April 13, 2014

Cite this paper:
Masood Ghane and Zahra Azimi. Isolation, Identification and Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Pseudomonas spp. Isolated from Hospital Environment in Tonekabon, North of Iran. Journal of Applied & Environmental Microbiology. 2014; 2(4):97-101. doi: 10.12691/jaem-2-4-2

Abstract

A wide variety of opportunistic pathogens has been detected in hospital surfaces. Medical center surfaces can serve as reservoirs of pathogenic bacteria. Among this pathogens, Pseudomonas species are one of the leading causes of nosocomial infections, frequently found in hospital environments. In this research, we studied the presence of Pseudomonas spp. in a hospital wards surfaces. 460 samples from a hospital sections were collected in the city of Tonekabon, in North of Iran, between December 2012 and June 2013. The identification of strains was performed by using biochemical tests and API20NE (Biomerieux). Finally, the identification of some strains was verified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. In general, 61 strains of Pseudomonas were isolated from all the sources. The highest isolation rate of Pseudomonas spp. was recorded in Surgery section (19/71%), followed by ICU (19/23%), Labor (17/46%), CCU (14/10%), Pediatric (11/76%), Internal (9/87%) and while lowest isolation was recorded in Dialysis section (1/56%). out of 61 isolates 52 (85/25%) were belonged to Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 6 (9/83%) to Pseudomonas stutzeri, 2 (3/28%) to Pseudomonas putidaand 1 (1/64%) to Pseudomonas fluorescens. In addition, all pseudomonas species isolates were resistant to penicillin, cephalexin and vancomycin, while they showed different levels of susceptibility to other antibiotics. Environments in hospital are vehicle of Pseudomonas spp. and therefore the patients and people working in this area must attention to their personal hygiene in order to avoid Pseudomonas infection.

Keywords:
isolation Pseudomonas hospital surfaces nosocomial infections antibiotic susceptibility Iran

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

References:

[1]  Maheswaran, S.K.U., Meenakshi Sundaram, M., and Rajasekaran, S.A. “Study on Controlling Hospital Acquired Infections: A Knowledge Based System Approach”. Information Technology Journal.; 6. 129-134. 2007.
 
[2]  Ananthan, G., Sivaperumal, p., and Hussain, S.M. “Antibacterial potential of marine ascidian Phallusia Arabica against isolated urinary tract infections bacterial pathogens”. Asian Journal of Animal Sciences. 5 (3). 208-212. 2011
 
[3]  Struelens, M.J., Denis, O., and Rodriguez-Villalobos, H. “Microbiology of nosocomial infections: Progress and challenges”. Microbes Infect. 6. 1043-1048. 2004.
 
[4]  Tambekar, D.H., Gulhane, P.B., Dahikar, S.G., and Dudhane, M.N. “Nosocomial Hazards of Doctor`s Mobile Phones in Hospitals”. Journal of Medical Sciences. 8. 73-76. 2008.
 
[5]  Penna, V.T.C., Martins, S.A.M., and Mazola, P.G. “Identification of bacteria in drinking and purified water during the monitoring of a typical water purification system”. BMC Public Health. 2 (13). 1471-1472. 2002.
 
[6]  Winstanley, C., Coulson, M.A., Wepner, B., Morgan, J.A., Hart, C.A. “Flagellin gene and protein variation amongst clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa”. Microbiology. 142 (8). 2145-2151. 1996.
 
[7]  Costerton, J.W., Stewart, P.S., and Greenberg, E.P. “Bacterial biofilms: A common couse of persistent infections”. Science. 284. 1318-1322. 1999.
 
[8]  Moss, R.B., “Cystic fibrosis: Pathogenesis, pulmonary infection and treatment”. Clin. Infect. Dis. 21.839-849. 1995.
 
[9]  Tambekar, D.H., Gulhane, P.B., Goval, K.S., and Gulhane, S.R., “Prevalence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in dental unit water- lines”. Research Journal of Microbiology. 2 (12). 983-987. 2007.
 
[10]  Thangaraj, M., Prem, V., Ramesh, T., and Lipton, A.P., “RAPD fingerprinting and demonstration of genetic variation in three pathogens isolated from mangrove environment”. Asian journal of Biotechnology. 3 (3). 269-274. 2011.
 
[11]  Agarwal, G., Kapil, A., Kabra, S.K., Das, B.K., and Dwivedi, N. “Charactenization of Pseudomonas aerujinosa isolated from chronically infected children with cystic fibrosis in India”. BMC Microbiol. 5. 215-221. 2005.
 
[12]  Yousefi-Mashouf, R., and Hashemi, H., “The Epidemiology of Burn Wound Infections in Patients Hospitalized in Burn Center of Hamedan, Western Iran”. Journal of Medical Sciences. 6. 426-431. 2006.
 
[13]  Micek, S.T., Lloyd, A.E., Ritchie, D.J., Reichley, R.M., Fraser,V.J.,and Kollef, M.H., Pseudomonas aeruginosa bloodstream infection: Importance of appropriate initial antimicrobial treatment”. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 49. 1306-1311. 2005.
 
[14]  Savafi, L., Duran, N., Savafi, N., Onlen, Y., and Ocak, S., “Clinical investigation the prevalence and resistance patterns of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in intensive care units in a university hospital”. Turk. J. Med. Sci. 35. 317-322. 2005.
 
[15]  Ruimy, R., Genauzeau, E., Barnabe, C., Beaulieu, A., Tibayrenc, M., and Andremont, A., “Genetic diversity of Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains isolated from ventilated patients with nosocomial pneumonia, cancer patients with bacteremia and environmental water”. Infect. Immun. 69. 584-588. 2001.
 
[16]  Akanji, B.O., Ajele, J.O., Onasanya, A., and Oyelakin, O., “Genetic fingerprinting of Pseudomonas aeruginosa involved in nosocomial infection as revealed by RAPD-PCR markers”. Biotechnology. 10 (1). 70-77. 2011.
 
[17]  Bratu, S., and Quale, J., “Global Emergence of nosocomial Gram-negative Pathogens Possessing Carbapenem-hydrolyzing β-lactamases”. Journal of Biological Sciences. 6. 220-230. 2006.
 
[18]  Iroha, I.R., Oji, A.E., Nwosu, O.K., and Amadi, E.S., “Antimicrobial activity of savlon, izaland z-ermicide against clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa from hospital wards”. European Journal of Dentistry and Medicine. 3 (1). 32-35. 2011.
 
[19]  Sambrook, J., Fritsch, E.F., and Maniatis, T., “Molecular Cloning a Laboratory Manual”. 2nd Edn., Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, New York 1989.
 
[20]  Reardon, C.L., Cummings, D.E., Petzke, L.M., Kinsall, B.L., Watson, D.B., Peyton, B.M., and Geesey, G.G., “Composition and Diversity of Microbial Communities Recovered from Surrogate Minerals Incubated in an Acidic Uranium-Contaminated Aquifer” Appl Environ Microbiol. 70 (10). 6037-6046. 2004.
 
[21]  Bauer, A.W., Kirby, W.M., Sherris, J.C., and Turck, M., “Antibiotic susceptibility testing by a standardized single disk method”. Am. J. Clin. Pathol. 45. 493-496. 1966.
 
[22]  Jones, A.M., Govan, J.R.W., Doherty, C.J., Dodd, M.E., Isalska, B., Stanbridge, T., and Webb, A.K., “Identific-ation of airborne dissemination of epidemic multiresistant strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosaat a CF centre during a cross infection outbreak”. Thorax. 58. 525-552. 2003.
 
[23]  Panagea, S., Winstanley, C., Walshaw, M.J., Ledson, M.J., and Hart, C.A., “Environmental contamination with an epidemic strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosain a Liverpool cystic fibrosis centre and study of its survival on dry surfaces” .J. Hospital Infect. 59. 102-107. 2005.
 
[24]  Pal, R.B., Rodrigues, M., and Datta, S., “Role of Pseudomonas in nosocomial infections and biological characterization of local strains”. J. Biosci. Technol. 1. 170-179. 2010.
 
[25]  Hota, S., Hirji, Z., Stockton, K., Lemieux, C., Dedier, H., Wolfaardt, G., and Gardam, M.A., “Outbreak of multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa colonization and infection secondary to imperfect intensive care unit room design”. Infect. Control Hosp. Epidemiol. 30. 25-33. 2009.
 
[26]  Panagea, S., Winstanley, C., Walshaw, M.J., Ledson, M.J., Hart, C.A. “Environmental contamination with an epidemic strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in a Liverpool cystic fibrosis centre, and study of its survival on dry surfaces”. J. Hosp. Infect. 59, 102-107. 2005.
 
[27]  Zolldann, D., Haefner, H., Poetter, C., Buzello, S., Sohr, D., Luetticken, R. andLemmen, S.W., “Assessment of a selective surveillance method for detecting nosocomial infections in patients in the intensive care department”. Am. J. Infect. Control. 31. 261-265. 2003.
 
[28]  Eriksen, H.M., Iversen, B.G., and Aavitsland, P., “Prevalence of nosocomial infections in hospitals in Norway, 2002 and 2003”. J. Hosp. Infect. 60. 40-45. 2003.
 
[29]  Loureiro, M.M., Demoraes, B.A., Mendonca, V., Quadra, M.R.R., pinherio, G.S. and Asensi, M.D., “Pseudomonasaeruginosa: Study of antibiotic resistance and molecular typingin hospital infection cases in a neonatal intensive care unit”. Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz. 97. 387-394. 2002.
 
[30]  Van Elder, J., “Multicentre surveillance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa susceptibility patterns in nosocomial infection”. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 51. 347-352. 2003.
 
[31]  Pietro, R.C.L.R., Kashima, S., Almeida, A.M.F., Silva, C.H.P.M., Rocha, L.B., Padua, J.M. and Lia, R.C.C. “Analysis of susceptibility profile of Pseudomonas spp. and prevalence of bacterial samples from the surfaces of dental consulting rooms”. J. Basic Applied Pharm. Sci. 26. 145-148. 2005.
 
[32]  AhaniAzari, A., and Danesh, A., “Survey frequency of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and their susceptibility patterns in Gorgan Taleghani hospital”. J. Gorgan Univ. Med. Sci. 9. 69-73. 2007.
 
[33]  Oliveira, A.C., Maluta, R.P., Stella, A.E., Rigobelo, E.C., Marin, J.M., and de Avila, F.A. “Isolation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains from dental office Environments and units in Barretos, state of Saopaulo, Brazil and analysis of their susceptibility to antimicrobial drugs”. Braz. J. Microbiol. 39. 579-584. 2008.