Journal of Applied & Environmental Microbiology
ISSN (Print): 2373-6747 ISSN (Online): 2373-6712 Website: http://www.sciepub.com/journal/jaem Editor-in-chief: Sankar Narayan Sinha
Open Access
Journal Browser
Go
Journal of Applied & Environmental Microbiology. 2014, 2(3), 81-85
DOI: 10.12691/jaem-2-3-4
Open AccessArticle

Isolation and Identification of Bacteria Associated with Fresh and Smoked Fish (Clarias gariepinus) In Minna Metropolis, Niger State. Nigeria

Ibrahim B. U.1, , BABA J.2 and Sheshi M. S.1

1Department of Biology Faculty of Natural Science Ibrahim Badamasi Babangida University Lapai. Niger State. Nigeria

2Department of Microbiology Faculty of Natural Science Ibrahim Badamasi Babangida University Mlapai. Niger State. Nigeria

Pub. Date: March 31, 2014

Cite this paper:
Ibrahim B. U., BABA J. and Sheshi M. S.. Isolation and Identification of Bacteria Associated with Fresh and Smoked Fish (Clarias gariepinus) In Minna Metropolis, Niger State. Nigeria. Journal of Applied & Environmental Microbiology. 2014; 2(3):81-85. doi: 10.12691/jaem-2-3-4

Abstract

An in-vitro assay was conducted to ascertain and identify major bacterial contaminants of fish, which hitherto had constituted an imported dietary intake of the people of Minna Metropolis, Nigeria. Fresh and smoked fish samples were collected from three different markets, the bacterial load of the samples was determined using the pour plate method. Identification and characterization of various isolates were based on gram-staining technique and biochemical tests. Clarias gariepinus was used for the study. In-vitro assay result revealed that the samples were contaminated by six bacteria species, which include Staphilococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Staphilococcus epidermis, Salmonella epidermis, Salmonella typhii, Streptococcus spp. and Shigella sp. The mean bacterial load for the fresh fish was 1.84 x 106 cfu/ ml. and for the smoked fish 2.06 x 106 cfu/ ml.

Keywords:
Clarias gariepinus bacterial load fresh fish smoked fish Minna metropolis

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

References:

[1]  Adeleke, I. (1999). Fish production in Nigeria. Sunday Punch, May, 1999. PP. 29.
 
[2]  Austin, B. and Austin, D. B. (1993). Bacterial fish pathogen. Disease in farmed and wild fish. 2nd edn. Ellis Horwood, Chichester.
 
[3]  Brown, G. E. A. (2004). A Report on the prevalence of Bacteria specie in Retail Smoked fish within Bauchi Metropolis.
 
[4]  Budiati, T., Rusul, G., Alkarkhi, A. F. M., Ahmad, R. and Arip, Y. T. (2011). Prevalene of Salmonella Spp. From catfish (Clarias gaiepinus) by using improvement isolation methods. International conference. Asia Agric. Animal Animal IPCBEE, 13: 71-75.
 
[5]  Bremer, P. J., Fletcher, G. C. and Osborne, C. (2003). Salmonella in Seafood, New Zealand Institute for Crop and Food Research Ltd., New Zealand.
 
[6]  Beveridge, M. C. M., (1989). Problems caused by birds at inland waters and freswater fish farms: In: Welcomme, R. ed. Report of the EIFAC working party on prevetion and control of birds predation in aquaculture and fisheries, Rome, Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations, 34-73 (EIFAC Technical Paper 51).
 
[7]  Babu, P. S. (2000). Ichyozoonoses. Fish farmer International, 14: 14-17.
 
[8]  Cheesbrough, M. (2002). District Laboratory Practice in Tropical Countries. (Part II). Tropical Health Technology Publishers, Great Britain. 40-56 pp.
 
[9]  Claucas, I. J. and Ward, A. R. (1996). Post-harvest Fisheries Development: A Guide to Handling, Preservation, Processing and Quality. Chartan Maritime, Kent. ME4 TB,United Kingdom.
 
[10]  Collins, C. H., Lyne, P. M. and Grange, G. M. (1989). Microbiological Methods. 6th Ed. Butterwoths. London. 56-66 pp.
 
[11]  Efuntoye, M. O., Olurin and Jegede, G. C. (2011). Bacterial Flora from Healthy Clarias gariepinus and their antimicrobial resistance pattern. Advance Jour. of food Science and Technology 4 (3): 121-125.
 
[12]  Fang, X., Guo, X. and Yu, J. (2010). The preliminary studies on the beterotrophic bacteria in high yield fish ponds. Fish journal 13 (2). 66-71.
 
[13]  FDF (2007). Federal Department of Fisheries. Fisheries statistics of Nigeria, 4th Ed.: 1995-2007. 49 pp.
 
[14]  Fenion, D. R. (1983). A comparison of Salmonella serotypes found in the faeces of of gulls feeding at sewage works with serotypes in sewage. Journal of Hygiene., 91: 47-52.
 
[15]  Hassan, I. E., Viola, H. Z., Abdallah, M. E. and Dinna, A. E. (2010). Studies on the effects of bacterial diseases on skin and gill structure of Clarias gariepinus in Dakahlia Province, Egypt. Annals of Biological Research. 1 (4): 106-118. Fish jour.
 
[16]  Heinitz, M. L., Ruble, R. D., Wagner, D. E. and Tatini, (2000). Incidence of Salmonella in fish and sea food. Int. Jour. Of Food Microbiol., 63: 579-592.
 
[17]  Hudson, Q., akennet, A. A. and Meyer, R. (2005). Survey of specific fish pathogens in Devisl fish pond, North Dakota, Journal of aquatic animals 6 pp., 12-99 pp.
 
[18]  Ipki, G. U. and Offem, B. O. (2008). Bacterial infection of cultural fishes in the fish farm of the Cross River University of Technology. Egypt Jour. Of Microbiology. 21: 57-63.
 
[19]  Jonah, T. U. (1990). Some emergent diseases and management problems of Orecromis niloticus, Sarotherodon galileus and Clarias sp. in Nigeria. Jour. of Aquatic Science. 2: 153-161
 
[20]  Kabata, Z. (2008). Parasites and Diseases of Fish in the Tropics. Taylor Francis publ. london. 92 pp.
 
[21]  Kumar, R., Surendran, P. K. and Tampuran, N. (2009). Distribution and genotypic characteristics of Salmonella serovars isolated from tropical sea food of Cochin, India J. Appl. Microbiol., 106: 515-524.
 
[22]  Kusuda, R. and Salati, F. (1993). Major bacterial diseases affecting mariculture in Japan. Annu. Rev. Fish Dis. 3: 69-85.
 
[23]  Moshood, A. Y. and TengkuHaziyamin, A. A. (2012). Isolation and Identification of Bcateria in Retailed Smoked Fish within Bauchi Metropolis. Jour. of Pharm. And Biol. Sciences. 3 (1): 1-5.
 
[24]  Nho, S. W. Shin, G. W., park, S. B., Jang, H. B. and Cha, I. S. (2009). Phenotypic characteristic of Streptococcus iniae and Streptococcus parauberis isolated from olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus). FEM Microbiol Lett 293 (1): 20-27.
 
[25]  Obi, S. K. C. and Krakowiaka, A. (1983). Theory and practices of food Microbiology. (Unpublish manual).
 
[26]  Ponce, E., Khan, A. A., Cheng, C. M., Sumange-West, C. and Cerniglia, C. E. (2008). Prevalence and Characterisation of Salmonella enterica serovar Welevreden from imported sea food. Food Microbiol. 1: 29-35.
 
[27]  Robert, R. J. (2001). The pathophysiology and systemic pathology of Teleost. In: Fish pathology Roberts (Ed.). Ballure Tindal. London. 56-134 pp.
 
[28]  Romalde, J. L., Magarinos, B., Nunez, S., Ba rja, J. L. and Toranzo, A. E. (1996). Host range susceptibilityof Enterococcus sp. strains isolated from diseased turbot: possible routes of infection. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 62: 607-611.
 
[29]  Seong-Won, N., Jun-ichi, H., Seong, B. P., Ho, B. J., In Seok, C., Motoshige, Y., Yoji, N., Atsushi, F., Motohiko, S., Kinya, K., Hidehiro, K., Ikuo, H., Haruko, T., Takashi, A. and Tae-Sung, J. (2013). Comparative Genomic Characterisation of Three Streptococcus parauberis Strains in Fish Pathogen, as Assessed by Wide-Genome Analyses. Retrieved from http: www. Plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0080395 on 26/03/2014.
 
[30]  Sowunmi, A. A., Okunubi, M. A. and Efuntoye, M. O. (2008). Occurrence of bacteria in gill and buccal cavity of Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822) and Tilapia zilli (Gervais) from Lekki lagoon, Southwest, Nigeria. Advance Jour. of food Science and Technology 4 (3): 121-125.
 
[31]  Sakazaki, R. and Shimad, T. (1986). Vibro species as causative agent of food-borne infection. In: Development of Food Microbiology. Roinson, R. K. London Elsevier, 2: 123-151.
 
[32]  Tiamiyu, A. M., Emikpe, B. O. and Adedeji, O. B. (2011). Isolation and Identification of aerobic bacteria flora of the skin and stomach of wild and cultured Clarias gariepinus and Oreochromis niloticus from Ibadan, Southwest, Nigeria. Journal of Applied Sciences Research, 7 (7): 1047-1051.
 
[33]  Toranzo, A. E., Devesa, S., Heinen, P., Riaza, A., Nunez, S., Barja, J. L., (1994). Streptococcosis in cultured turbot caused by an Enterococcus-like bacterium. Bull. Eur. Assoc. Fish Pathol. 14:19-23.
 
[34]  Toranzo, A. E., Cutrin, J. M., Nunez, S., Romalde, J. L. and Barja, J. L., (1995). Antigenic characterization of Enterococcus strains pathogenic for turbot and their relationship with other Gram positive bacteria. Dis. Aquat. Org. 21: 187-191
 
[35]  Ugwuor, N. G., Anadu, D. L., and Ejike, C.(1997).Pseudomonas infection of catfish of the genus Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1982). Journal of aquatic science. 5: 11-13.