Journal of Applied Agricultural Economics and Policy Analysis
ISSN (Print): ISSN Pending ISSN (Online): ISSN Pending Website: Editor-in-chief: Apply for this position
Open Access
Journal Browser
Journal of Applied Agricultural Economics and Policy Analysis. 2019, 2(1), 16-21
DOI: 10.12691/jaaepa-2-1-3
Open AccessArticle

Drivers of Adoption of Conservation Agriculture Practices in Maize-based Production Systems in Eastern Uganda and Western Kenya

Dorothy Birungi Namuyiga1, and Bernard Bashaasha1

1Makerere University, School of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Agribusiness & Natural Resource Economics, P.O Box 7062, Kampala, Uganda

Pub. Date: February 16, 2019

Cite this paper:
Dorothy Birungi Namuyiga and Bernard Bashaasha. Drivers of Adoption of Conservation Agriculture Practices in Maize-based Production Systems in Eastern Uganda and Western Kenya. Journal of Applied Agricultural Economics and Policy Analysis. 2019; 2(1):16-21. doi: 10.12691/jaaepa-2-1-3


Increasing crop yields sustainably appears to be the only way out of the chronic decline in food availability and climate change effects in Sub-Saharan Africa, given the growing populations, shrinking farm sizes and degrading soils. The adoption of soil fertility technologies for example, conservation and inorganic fertilizer is still very low especially in Uganda. To date, no study has investigated factors that affect farmers’ adoption of these technologies in Eastern Uganda (Tororo and Kapchorwa districts) and western Kenya (Bungoma and Trans-Nzoia districts). The objective of the study was to analyze the factors that influence choice of adoption of Conservation Agriculture (CA) practices in maize-based production systems in the region. Ordered Probit model was employed to analyze determinants of adoption. The study used cross sectional data from 790 randomly sampled respondents. Fifty-seven percent of the respondents had adopted CA and had an average of 45 years, household size of seven members, average land owned was 3 acres and distance travelled to access input and output markets was 1.2 Km. Factors that affected the different levels of adoption included maize variety planted, use of hired labor and access to input credit. Policies that will lead to increased investment in better infrastructures, increased investment in provision of extension services and subsidy programs for agricultural inputs are recommended.

conversation agriculture maize-base production systems ordered probit model Eastern Uganda and Western Kenya

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit


[1]  Paarlberg, R. 2010. Food Politics: What Everyone Needs to Know, Oxford University Press, New York.
[2]  Sanchez, P.A., Denning, L., Nziguheba, G. 2009. The African Green Revolution moves forward. Food Security 1, 37-44.
[3]  Rashid, S., Dorosh, P.A., Malek, M., Lemma, S. 2013. Modern Input Promotion in Sub-Saharan Africa: Insights from Asian Green Revolution. Agricultural Economics 44 (2013) 705-721
[4]  SEI. 2005. Sustainable pathways to attain the millennium development goals assessing the role of water, energy and sanitation. Research report prepared for the UN World Summit, 14 September, 2005, New York. Stockholm Environment Institute, Stockholm
[5]  Shepherd K., M. Walsh, F. Mugo, C. Ong, T.S. Hansen, B. Swallow, A. Awiti, H. Mwangi, D. Nyantika, D. Ombalo, M. Grunder, F. Mbote and D. Mungai. 2000. Linking Land and Lake, Research and Extension, Catchment and Lake Basin: Final Technical Report–Startup Phase, July 1999 to June 2000. Working Paper 2000-2, ICRAF.
[6]  Montpellier Panel Report. 2013. Sustainable intensification: A new paradigm for African agriculture, London.
[7]  Mapila, M.A.T.J., Njuki, J., Delve, R.J., Zingore, S., & Matibini, J. 2012. Determinants of fertilizer use by smallholder maize farmers in the Chinyanja Triangle in Malawi, Mozambique and Zambia, Agrekon: Agricultural Economics Research, Policy and Practice in Southern Africa, 51:1, 21-41.
[8]  Food and Agricultural Organisation (FAO). 2009. How to Feed the World in 2050 (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome).
[9]  Wall, P. 2007.Tailoring conservation agriculture to the needs of small farmers in developing countries: an analysis of issues. J. Crop Improv. 19, 137-155.
[10]  Baudron, F., Mwanza, H.M., Triomphe, B., Bwalya, M. 2007. Conservation Agriculture in Zambia: A Case Study of Southern Province. African Conservation Tillage Network, Centre de Cooperation Internationale de Recherche Agronomique pour le Development.
[11]  Shetto, R., Owenya, M. 2007. Conservation Agriculture As Practised In Tanzania: Three Case Studies. African Conservation Tillage Network, Centre de Coope´ ration Internationale deRecherche Agronomique pour le Developpement, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Nairobi, Kenya.
[12]  Kaumbutho, P., Kienzle, J. 2007. Conservation Agriculture As Practised in Kenya: Two Case Studies.African Conservation Tillage Network, Centre de Cooperation Internationale de Recherche Agronomique pour le Developpement, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Nairobi, Kenya.
[13]  Bolliger, A., Magid, J., Amado, T.J.C., Neto, F.S., Ribeiro, M.D.D., Calegari, A., Ralisch, R., de Neergaard, A. 2006. Taking stock of the Brazilian ‘‘zero-till revolution’’: a review of landmark research and farmers’ practice. Adv. Agron. 91, 47-110.
[14]  Nambiro, E. and Okoth, P. 2013. What factors influence the adoption of inorganic fertilizer by maize farmers? A case of Kakamega District, Western Kenya. Tropical Soil Biology and Fertility Institute of CIAT (CIAT-TSBF), c/o World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF), P. O. Box 30677-00100, Nairobi, Kenya.
[15]  Salasya B, Mwangi W, Mwabu D, Diallo A. 2007. Factors influencing adoption of stress-tolerant maize hybrid (WH 502) in western Kenya.African Journal of Agricultural Resources 2: 544-551.
[16]  Licker, R., Johnston, M., Foley, J.A., Barford, C., Kucharik, C.J., Monfreda, C., Ramankutty, N. 2010. Mind the gap: how do climate and agricultural management explain the ‘yield gap’ of croplands around the world? Glob. Ecol. Biogeogr. 19, 769-782.
[17]  Okoboi, G. and Barungi, M. 2012. Constraints to Fertilizer Use in Uganda: Insights from Uganda Census of Agriculture 2008/9. Economic Policy Research Centre, Kampala, Uganda, Research Series #88
[18]  Kasule, B.S. 2009. Inorganic fertilizer in Uganda- Knowledge gaps, profitability, subsidy and implications of a national policy. International Food Policy Research Institute. Kampala, Uganda.
[19]  Namazzi, J. 2008. Use of Inorganic Fertilizers in Uganda. Uganda Strategy Support Program, Brief No. 4.International Food Policy Research Institute. Kampala, Uganda.
[20]  Kato, E. 2000. “An analysis of factors affecting adoption of K131 bean variety by women groups in Luuka County, Iganga district.” MS thesis, Makerere University.
[21]  Ariga, J. and T.S. Jayne. 2010. “Factors Driving the Increase in Fertilizer Use by Smallholder Farmers in Kenya, 1990-2007”.
[22]  Kipsat, M. J. 2002. Economic analysis of the use of non- conventional fertilizer technologies in Vihiga district of western Kenya. Phd thesis, Moi University.
[23]  Genius, M., Pantzios, C. and Tzouvelekas, V. 2006. Information Acquisition and Adoption of Organic Farming Practices, Journal of Agricultural and Resource economics 31(1): 93-113
[24]  Bogdan, R. C and Bilken, S. K. 2009. Qualitative Research for Education; An Introduction to Theories and Models, available from http://www.francescoiannicom/Digital%20Portfolio/pdf%20files/EDU7900%20 Qualitative%20Research%20for%20Education.pdf 11 pages
[25]  Green, H. W. 2003. Ecomometric Analysis, 5th edition, Prentice-Hall, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey.
[26]  Chen, X., F. Zhang, V. Römheld, D. Horlacher, R. Schulz, M. Böning-Zilkens, P. Wang, and W.Claupein. 2006. Synchronizing N supply from soil and fertilizer and N demand of winter wheat by an improved N min method. Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems 74(2): 91-98.
[27]  Maddala, G. 1983. Limited Dependent and Qualitative Variables in Econometrics, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
[28]  Greene, W.H. 2000. Econometric Analysis (4th edition).Prentice Hall, New Jersey.
[29]  CIMMYT. 1993. The Adoption of Agricultural Technology: A Guide for Survey Design, Mexico, D.F: CIMMYT.
[30]  Makokha, S., S. Kimani, W. Mwangi, H. Verkuijl, and F. Musembi. 2001. Determinants of Fertilizer and Manure Use in Maize Production in Kiambu District, Kenya. Mexico, D.F.: International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT) and Kenya Agricultural Research Institute (KARI).
[31]  Giller, E. K., Witter. E., Corbeels. M., Tittonell . P. 2009. Conservation Agriculture and Smallholder farming in Africa: The heretics view, Field Crops Research 114, 23-34
[32]  Mor, S. and Sharma, S. 2012. Technical Efficiency and Supply Chain Practices in Dairying: The Case of India. Agricultural Economics—Czech, 58, 85-91.
[33]  Abatania, L.N., Hailu, A. and Mugera, A.W. 2012. Analysis of Farm Household Technical Efficiency in Northern Ghana Using Bootstrap DEA. Proceedings of the 56th Annual Conference of the Australian Agricultural and Research Economics Society, Perth, 7-10 February 2012.
[34]  Alemdar, T., Bahadir, B. and Oren, M.N. 2010. Cost and Return Analysis and Technical Efficiency of Small Scale Milk Production: A Case Study for Cukurova Region, Turkey. Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances, 9, 744-847.
[35]  Rahman, S.A. and Umar, H.S. 2009. Measurement of Technical Efficiency and Its Determinants in Crop Production in Lafia Local Government Area of Nasarawa State, Nigeria. Journal of Tropical Agriculture, Food, Environment and Extension, 8, 90-96.
[36]  Majiwa, E.B., Kavoi, M.M. and Murage, H. 2012. Smallholder Dairying in Kenya: The Assessment of the Technical Efficiency Using the Stochastic Production Frontier Model. JAGST, 14.