International Journal of Physics
ISSN (Print): 2333-4568 ISSN (Online): 2333-4576 Website: Editor-in-chief: B.D. Indu
Open Access
Journal Browser
International Journal of Physics. 2017, 5(2), 53-56
DOI: 10.12691/ijp-5-2-4
Open AccessArticle

Estimation the Radiological Hazard Effects for Soil Samples of Nineveh Province

Laith A. Najam1, , Fouad A. Majeed2, Malik H. Kheder3 and Shaher A. Younis1

1Department of Physical, College of Science, University of Mosul, Mosul, IRAQ

2Department of Physics, College of Education for Pure Sciences, University of Babylon, Hilla, IRAQ

3Department of Physics, College of Education, Hamdania Univ., Mosul, IRAQ

Pub. Date: April 14, 2017

Cite this paper:
Laith A. Najam, Fouad A. Majeed, Malik H. Kheder and Shaher A. Younis. Estimation the Radiological Hazard Effects for Soil Samples of Nineveh Province. International Journal of Physics. 2017; 5(2):53-56. doi: 10.12691/ijp-5-2-4


The specific activities of ten soil samples has been measured with HPGe detector in order to evaluate the radiological hazard effects of the natural radioactivity, the activity utilization index(AUI), alpha index (Iα) and the radiation exposure rate (I) have been measured. The activity utilization index values ranged from 0.275 in SS9 (Al-Medan) location to 0.735 in SS2 (Rebeaa) location with an average value 0.593, alpha index(Iα) values ranged from 0.081 in SS9 ( Al-Medan) location to 0.194 in SS1(Sinjar) location with an average value of 0.162, while the radiation exposure rate(I) values ranged from 107.20µR/h in SS9 (Al-Medan) location to 260.37µR/h in SS2 (Rebeaa) location with an average value of 186.88 µR/h.

HPGe detector natural radioactivity alpha index radiation exposure rate

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit


[1]  Degerlier, M, Karahan, G. and Ozger, G., (2008). Radioactivity concentrations and dose assessment for soil samples around Adana, Turkey. Environ. Radioact. 99(7) 1018-1025.
[2]  Sivakumar, S., ChandrasekaranA, Ravisankar R., Ravikumar S.M., Prakash Jebakumar, J. Prince, Vijayagopal, P., Vijayalakshmi I., and Jose, M.T.,(2014). Measurement of natural radioactivity and evaluation of radiation hazards in coastal sediments of east coast of Tamilnadu using statistical approach, Journal of Taibah University for Science, 8, 375-384.
[3]  Dugalic,G., Krstic, D., Jelic, M., Nikezic, D., Milenkovic, B., Pucarevic, M. and Zeremski-Skoric, T., (2010). Heavy metals, organics andradioactivity in soil of western Serbia, J. Hazard. Mater, 177(1-3), 697-702.
[4]  Venema, L.B. and De Meijer, R.J., (2001). Natural radionuclides as tracers of the dispersal of dredge spoil dumped at sea, J. Environ. Radioact., 55(3), 221-239.
[5]  Cho Y.H, Jeong C.H. and Hahn R.S., (1996). Sorption characteristics of 137Cs onto clay minerals effect of mineral structure and ionic strength, J. Radioanal. Nucl. Chem., 204(1), 33-43.
[6]  UNSCEA, (2000). Sources and Effects of Ionizing Radiation, Report of the United Nation Scientific Committee on the effects of Atomic Radiation to the General Assembly ,United Nations, New York.
[7]  Taskin H., Karavus M., Ayb, P., Topuzoglu A., Hidiroglu S. and Karahan G., (2009). Radionuclide concentrations in soil and lifetime Cancer risk due to gamma radioactivity in Kirklareli, Turkey, J. Envir. Rad., 100(1), 49-53.
[8]  IAEA, (1996). International Atomic Energy Agency. Radiation Safety. IAEA Division of Public Information, 96-00725 IAEA/PI/A47E.
[9]  Teodere, D.F., Edwards, J.N., (1993). Housing, stress and well-being: evidence from Thailand, Soc. Sci. Med., 36(11), 1417-1428.
[10]  Najam, Laith A., Younis, Shaher A. and Kithah Fouzey H., (2015). Natural Radioactivity in Soil Samples in Nineveh Province and the Associated Radiation Hazards, International Journal of Physics, 3(3), 126-132.
[11]  Najam, Laith A., Tawfiq Nada F. and Kitah Fouzey Hasan, (2013). Measurement of Natural Radioactivity in Building Materials used in IRAQ, Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences, 7(1), 56-66.
[12]  Ramasamy, V., Suresh G., Meenakshisundaram, V., and Ponnusamy, V., (2011). Horizontal and vertical characterization of radionuclides and minerals in river sediments, Appl. Radioact. Isot. 69(1), 184-195.
[13]  Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA-OECD), (1979). Exposure to Radiation from Natural Radioactivity in Building Materials. Report by NEA Group of Experts, OECD, Paris.
[14]  El-Gamal, A., Nasr, S. and El-Taher, A., (2007). Study of the spatial distribution of natural radioactivity in Upper Egypt Nile River sediments, Radioact. Meas. 42(3), 457-465.
[15]  Najam L.A.,, Ebrahiem S. A. and Abbas Sh. A., (2017). Evaluation of natural radioactivity in Selected Soil Samples from the Archaeological of Ur City by using HPGe detector, WSN, 62, 79-92.
[16]  Khan,B., Eichholz G.G. and Clark e F.J., (1983). Search for building materials as sources of elevated radiation dose, Health Physics, 45(2), 349-361.
[17]  Beck H. L. (1972). “The Physics of Environmental Gamma Radiation Fields, The Natural Radiation Environment II, (Edited by J.A. S. Adams et al.), U.S. AEC Rep. CONF- 720805,101
[18]  Beck H. L., (1979). Environmental Measurements Laboratory, New York, Personal Communication.