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International Journal of Physics. 2014, 2(6), 277-281
DOI: 10.12691/ijp-2-6-11
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Cubic Atom and Crystal Structures

Zhiliang Cao1, 2, and Henry Gu Cao3

1Wayne State University, 42 W Warren Ave, Detroit

2Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai, China

3Northwestern University, 633 Clark St, Evanston, IL 60208

Pub. Date: December 15, 2014

Cite this paper:
Zhiliang Cao and Henry Gu Cao. Cubic Atom and Crystal Structures. International Journal of Physics. 2014; 2(6):277-281. doi: 10.12691/ijp-2-6-11


The paper "Unified field theory" (UFT) unified four fundamental forces with help of the Torque model. UFT gives a new definition of Physics: “A natural science that involves the study of motion of space-time-energy-force to explain and predict the motion, interaction and configuration of matter.” One of important pieces of matter is the atom. Unfortunately, the configuration of an atom cannot be visually observed. Two of the important accepted theories are the Pauli Exclusion Principle and the Schrodinger equations. In these two theories, the electron configuration is studied. Contrary to the top down approach, UFT theory starts from structure of Proton and Neutron using bottom up approach instead. Interestingly, electron orbits, electron binding energy, Madelung Rules, Zeeman splitting and crystal structure of the metals, are associated with proton’s octahedron shape and three nuclear structural axes. An element will be chemically stable if the outmost s and p orbits have eight electrons which make atom a symmetrical cubic. Most importantly, the predictions of atomic configurations in this paper can be validated by characteristics of chemical elements which make the UFT claims credible. UFT comes a long way from space-time-energy-force to the atom. The conclusions of UFT are more precise and clearer than the existing theories that have no proper explanation regarding many rules, such as eight outer electrons make element chemically stable and the exception on Madelung's rules. Regardless of the imperfections of the existing atomic theories, many particle Physics theories have no choice but to build on top of atomic theories, mainly Pauli Exclusion Principle and Schrodinger equations. Physics starts to look for answer via ambiguous mathematical equations as the proper clues are missing. Physics issues are different from mathematical issues, as they are Physical. Pauli Exclusion works well in electron configuration under specific physical condition and it is not a general Physics principal. Schrodinger’s mathematical equations are interpreted differently in UFT. UFT is more physical as it built itself mainly on concept of Space, Time, Energy and Force, in the other word, UFT is Physics itself. Theory of Everything (ToE), the final theory of the Physics, can be simply another name for UFT. This paper connects an additional dot to draw UFT closer to ToE.

nuclear physics particle physics unified field theory gold crystal

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