International Journal of Physics
ISSN (Print): 2333-4568 ISSN (Online): 2333-4576 Website: Editor-in-chief: B.D. Indu
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International Journal of Physics. 2019, 7(3), 73-85
DOI: 10.12691/ijp-7-3-2
Open AccessArticle

New Formulas and Mechanism for the Spiral Arm Formation of Galaxies

Hongjun Pan1,

1The Department of Chemistry, University of North Texas, Denton, TX76203, United States

Pub. Date: October 23, 2019

Cite this paper:
Hongjun Pan. New Formulas and Mechanism for the Spiral Arm Formation of Galaxies. International Journal of Physics. 2019; 7(3):73-85. doi: 10.12691/ijp-7-3-2


A rotating double-side sprinkle emission model is proposed to describe mechanism for the spiral arm formation of galaxies and various types of spiral patterns. The spiral galaxy can be treated as an ideal fluid system with a universal flat rotation curve; a rotating black hole is located at the center of the galaxy with rotating axis perpendicular to the galactic disc. Inside the black hole, the matter is transformed into new type of matter with anti-gravitational property and emitted by the black hole through two opposite directions in the galactic rotating plane similar to the lighthouse beams, it is then converted to non-gravitational matter. The new matter moves in straightly confined route for certain distance, and then it moves freely with its momentum combining the fluid rotation of the galaxy. The new matter will be transformed to hydrogens on its way of motion, increases the local hydrogen density, refuels the local stars and promotes young star formation, the luminosity of the area is temporarily enhanced, brighter than other areas, such enhanced luminosity area is what seen as the galactic bar and spiral arms. New formulas with one parameter and one variable are derived in three different cases. Different categories of theoretical spiral patterns have been produced and various real images of the spiral galaxies have been precisely simulated by the new formulas. This model seems a universal model and can be applied to most (if not all) spiral galaxies. Galaxies with special spiral patterns like Hoag’s object and arms not meeting the end of galactic bars can be naturally explained by this model. This model is the first attempt to think the spiral arm formation with the hydrogen originated from inside of the galactic center to outside. The proposed mechanism of the hydrogen production seems highly speculative, but the result of the simulations is very satisfactory, this indicates that the idea for the hydrogens originated from inside the bar is a promising approach, may lead us to re-think about the property of the black holes and hope to serve as a trigger to promote the future research in this direction.

spiral galaxies simulation evolution black holes hydrogen production matter conversion

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