International Journal of Physics
ISSN (Print): 2333-4568 ISSN (Online): 2333-4576 Website: Editor-in-chief: B.D. Indu
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International Journal of Physics. 2019, 7(1), 16-20
DOI: 10.12691/ijp-7-1-3
Open AccessArticle

A Combined Cosmological and Gravitational Redshift Supports Electron-Positron Annihilation as the Most Likely Energy Source of the CMB

Jarl-Thure Eriksson1,

1Åbo Akademi University, Finland

Pub. Date: January 29, 2019

Cite this paper:
Jarl-Thure Eriksson. A Combined Cosmological and Gravitational Redshift Supports Electron-Positron Annihilation as the Most Likely Energy Source of the CMB. International Journal of Physics. 2019; 7(1):16-20. doi: 10.12691/ijp-7-1-3


A study based on a new formulation of the Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker equation has led to an alternative scenario for the evolving universe. Further, a theory which replaces the cosmological constant with the momentum pressure of emerging matter has been developed. The set of equations is called the CBU model (Continuously Breeding Universe). The model offers a tool to investigate the present state of the universe. It is assumed that expansion is caused by the continuous addition of matter, due to, say, electron-positron fluctuations. As a feature of the model the gravitational constant G is inversely proportional to the scale factor a. A gravitational uphill for light coming from distant galaxies causes a redshift far more dominant than the cosmological redshift. However, the influence is small in the nearby space of the Milky Way. The combined redshift provides the time of the CMB maximum. The redshift is zCMB = 1,54·109 for a scale factor of aCMB = 2,55·10-5. According to the CBU theory the time as measured from the initial event, i.e. the birth of the universe, is 389.000 years, surprisingly close to the Standard model value of 380.000 years. The combined redshift zCMB corresponds precisely to the frequency 160,23 GHz and the energy of the two photons emerging from a positron-electron annihilation, 1,63742·10-13 J.

general relativity Friedmann-Robertson-Walker equation redshift gravitational redshift electron-positron annihilation CMB

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