International Journal of Environmental Bioremediation & Biodegradation
ISSN (Print): 2333-8628 ISSN (Online): 2333-8636 Website: http://www.sciepub.com/journal/ijebb Editor-in-chief: Apply for this position
Open Access
Journal Browser
Go
International Journal of Environmental Bioremediation & Biodegradation. 2016, 4(2), 35-46
DOI: 10.12691/ijebb-4-2-2
Open AccessArticle

Decolorization of Xenobiotic Azo Dye- Black WNN by Immobilized Paenibacillus alvei MTCC 10625

Anamika Pokharia1 and Sarabjeet Singh Ahluwalia1,

1Department of Biotechnology, General Shivdev Singh Diwan Gurbachan Singh Khalsa College, Patiala -147004, Punjab, India

Pub. Date: July 08, 2016

Cite this paper:
Anamika Pokharia and Sarabjeet Singh Ahluwalia. Decolorization of Xenobiotic Azo Dye- Black WNN by Immobilized Paenibacillus alvei MTCC 10625. International Journal of Environmental Bioremediation & Biodegradation. 2016; 4(2):35-46. doi: 10.12691/ijebb-4-2-2

Abstract

The present study, Paenibacillus alvei MTCC 10625 elucidates the ability for the decolorization of synthetic dye effluent containing Black WNN dye, isolated from textile wastewater contaminated site. 96.4% decolorization of Black WNN (100 mg/l) was attained at pH 9, temperature 35°C within 48 h under optimized condition with free cells of P. alvei MTCC 10625. Moreover, P. alvei MTCC 10625 immobilized over polyurethane foam (PUF) and nylon mesh (NM), achieved 95.2 and 97.0% decolorization under microaerophilic conditions within 24 h. Biodegradation analysis by FTIR and HPTLC confirms the degradation of Black WNN dye and formation of different intermediate metabolites. Further, microbial toxicity as well as phytotoxicity assay confirms the nontoxic nature of the effluent released from the outlet of column. The former is in relation to using soil microbial flora; Bacillus cereus, Bacillus subtilis and Kocuria rosea MTCC 5932; whereas the later by using Triticum aestivum and Vigna radiata plants.

Keywords:
biodegradation black WNN dye decolorization nylon mesh polyurethane foam

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

Figures

Figure of 9

References:

[1]  Zhu, C., Wang, L. Yang, X., Wang, L., Zheng, S., Maizhi, F., Zong, H. “Photocatalytic degradation of azo dyes by supported TiO2 + UV in aqueous solution,” Chemosphere, 2000, 41(3), 303-309.
 
[2]  Correia, V.M., Stephenson, T., Judd, S.J. “Characteristics of textile wastewaters – a review,” Environmental Technology 1994, 15, 917-929.
 
[3]  Saratale, R.G., Saratale, G.D., Chang, J.S., Govindwar, S.P. “Decolorization and biodegradation of reactive dyes and dye wastewater by a developed bacterial consortium,” Biodegradation 2010, 21, 999-1015.
 
[4]  Yoo, E.S., Libra, J., Wiesman, U. “Reduction of azo dyes by Desulfovibrio desulfiricans,” Water Science and Technology 2000, 14, 15-22.
 
[5]  Chen, G., Huang, G.C., Chen, L., Chen, D. “A batch decolorization and kinetic study of Reactive Black 5 by a bacterial strain Enterobacter sp. GY-1,” International Biodeterioration and Biodegradation 2011, 65, 790-796.
 
[6]  Wijetunga, S., Xiufen, L., Wenquan, R., Chen, L. “Removal Mechanism of Acid dye of different chemical groups under anaerobic mixed culture,” Ruhuna journal of Science 2007, 2, 96-110.
 
[7]  Shaul, G.M., Holdsworth, T.J., Dempsey, C.R., Dostal, K.A. “Fate of water soluble azo dyes in the activated sludge process,” Chemosphere 1991, 22,107-119.
 
[8]  Zhang, F., Yediler, A., Liang, X., Kettrup, A. “Effects of dye additives on the ozonation process and oxidation by products: a comparative study using hydrolysed CI Reactive Red 120,” Dyes and Pigments 2004, 60, 1-7.
 
[9]  Gogate, P.R., Pandit, A.B. “A review of imperative technologies for wastewater treatment I: oxidation technologies at ambient conditions,” Advances in Environmental Research 2004, 8, 501-551.
 
[10]  Vitor, V., Corso, C.R. “Decolorization of textile dye by Candida albicans isolated from industrial effluents,” Journal of Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology 2008, 35, 1353-1357.
 
[11]  Dawakar, V., Jadhav, U., Jadhav, M., Kagalkar, A., Govindwar, S.P. “Decolourization and Detoxification of Sulphonated Azo Dye Red HE7B by Bacillus sp. VUS,” World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 2010, 26, 909-916.
 
[12]  Cetin, D., Donmez, G. “Decolorization of reactive dyes by mixed cultures isolated from textile effluent under anaerobic conditions,” Enzyme and Microbial Technology 2006, 38, 926-930.
 
[13]  Shah, P.D., Dave, S.R., Rao, M.S. “Enzymatic degradation of textile dye Reactive Orange 13 by newly isolated bacterial strain Alcaligenes faecalis PMS-1,” International Biodeterioration Biodegradation 2012, 69, 41-50.
 
[14]  Ramya, M., Iyappan, S., Manju, M., Jiffe, J.S. “Biodegradation and Decolorization of Acid Red by Acinetobacter radioresistens,” Journal of Bioremediation and Biodegradation 2010, 1(1), 1-6.
 
[15]  Loncar, N. Bozic, N., Lopez-Santin, J., Vujcic, Z. “Bacillus amyloliquefaciens laccase – From soil bacteria to recombinant enzyme for wastewater decolorization,” Bioresource Technology 2013, 147, 177-183.
 
[16]  Wang, H., Su, J.Q., Zheng, X.W., Tian, Y., Xiong, X.J., Zheng, T.L. “Bacterial decolorization and degradation of the Reactive Red 180 by Citrobacter sp. CK3,” International Biodeterioration and Biodegradation 2009, 63, 395-399.
 
[17]  Sharma, S., Roy, S. “Biodegradation of dye Reactive Black-5 by a novel bacterial endophyte,” International Research Journal of Environmental Sciences 2015, 4(4), 44-53.
 
[18]  Watanapokasin, R.Y., Boonyakamol, A., Sukseree, S., Krajarng, A., Sophonnithiprasert, T., Kanso, S., Imai, T., “Hydrogen production and anaerobic decolorization of wastewater containing Reactive Blue 4 by a bacterial consortium of Salmonella subterranea and Paenibacillus polymyxa,” Biodegradation 2009, 20(3), 411-418.
 
[19]  Shah, M.P. “Biodegradation of azo dyes by three isolated bacterial strains: An environmental bioremedial approach, “Microbial and Biochemical Technology 2014.
 
[20]  Ayed, L., Chaieb, K., Cheref, A., Bakhrouf, A. “Biodegradation and decolorization of triphenylmethane dyes by Staphylococcus epidermidis,” Desalination 2010, 137-146.
 
[21]  Pokharia, A., Ahluwalia, S.S. “Biodecolorization and degradation and degradation of xenobiotic azo dye – Basic Red 46 by staphylococcus epidermidis MTCC 10623,” International Journal of Research in Biosciences 2016, 5(2), 10-23.
 
[22]  Palamthodi, S., Patil, D., Patil, Y. “Microbial degradation of textile industrial effluents,” African Journal of Biotechnology 2011, 10(59), 12657-12661.
 
[23]  Mabrouk, M.E.M., Yusef, H.H. “Decolorization of Fast Red by Bacillus subtilis HM, Journal of Applied Science and Research 2008, 4, 262-269.
 
[24]  Pokharia, A., Ahluwalia, S.S. “Isolation and screening of dye decolorizing contaminated sites,” Textile Light Industrial Science and Technology 2013, 2(2), 54-61.
 
[25]  Gomare, S.S., Kalme, S.D., Govindwar, S.P. “Biodegradation of Navy Blue-3G by Brevibacillus laterosporus MTCC 2298”, Acta Chimica Slovencia 2009, 56, 789-796.
 
[26]  Waghmode, T.R., Kurade, M.B., Khandare, R.V., Govindwar, S.P. “A sequential aerobic / microaerophilic decolorization of sulfonated mono azo dye Golden Yellow HER by microbial consortium GG-BL,” International Biodeterioration and Biodegradation 2011, 65, 1024-1034.
 
[27]  Silviera, E., Marques, P.P., Macedo, P.G. Mazzola, P.G., Porto, A.L.F., Tambourgi, E.B., “Decolorization of industrial azo dye in an anoxic reactor by PUF immobilized Pseudomonas Oleovorans,” Journal of Water Reuse and Desalination 2011, 18-26.
 
[28]  Cui, D., Li, G., Zhao, D., Gu, X., Wang, C., Zhao, M. “Microbial community structures in mixed bacterial consortia for azo dye treatment under aerobic and anaerobic conditions,” Journal of Hazardous Materials 2011, 221-222, 185-192.
 
[29]  Lade, H.S., Waghmode, T.R., Kadam, A.A., Govindwar, S.P. “Enhanced biodegradation and detoxification of disperse azo dye Rubine GFL and textile industry effluent by defined fungal-bacterial consortium,” International Journal of Biodeterioration and Biodegradation 2012, 72, 94-107.
 
[30]  Franciscon, E., Zille, A., Fantinatti-Garboggini, F., Silva, I.S., Cavaco-Paulo, A., Durrant, L.R., “Microaerophilic-aerobic sequential decolorization / biodegradation of textile azo dyes by a facultative Klebsiella sp. strain VN-31,” Process Biochemstry 2009, 44, 446-452.
 
[31]  Singh, R.P., Singh, P.K., Singh, R.L., “Bacterial decolorization of textile azo dye Acid Orange by Staphylococcus hominis RMLRT 03,” Toxicology International 2014, 21(2), 160-166.
 
[32]  Ayed, L., Mahdhi, A., Cheref, A., Bakhrouf, A. “Decolorization and degradation of azo dye Methyl Red by an isolated Sphingomonas paucimobilis: biotoxicity and metabolites characterization,” Desalination 2011, 274, 272-277.
 
[33]  Pokharia, A., Ahluwalia, S.S. “Decolorization of Black WNN dye with Staphylococcus epidermidis MTCC 10623,” Current Trends in Biotechnology and Chemical Research 2012, 2(2), 65-73.
 
[34]  Imran, M., Crowley, D.E., Khalid, A., Hussain, S., Mumtaz, M.W., Arshad, M. “Microbial biotechnology for decolorization of textile wastewaters,” Review of Environmental Science and Biotechnology 2015, 14, 73-92.
 
[35]  Chen, K.C., Wu, J.Y., Liou, D.J., Hwang, S.C.J. “Decolorization of the textile azo dyes by newly isolated bacterial strains,” Journal of Biotechnology 2003, 101, 57-68.
 
[36]  Prasad, A.S.A., Satyanarayana, V.S.V., Bhaskara Rao, K.V. “Biotransformation of Direct Blue 1 by a moderately halophilic bacterium Marinobacter sp. strain HBRA and toxicity assessment of degraded metabolites,” Journal of Hazardous Material 2013, 262, 674-684.
 
[37]  Joe, J., Kothari, R.K., Raval, C.M., Kothari, C.R., Akbari, V.G. “Decolorization of textile dye Remazol Black B by Pseudomonas aeruginosa CR-25 isolated from the common effluent treatment plant,” Journal of Bioremediation and Biodegradation 2011, 2, 118-123.
 
[38]  Telke, A., Kalyani, D., Jadhav, J., Govindwar, S.P. “Kinetics and mechanism of Reactive Red 14 degradation by a bacterial isolate Rhizobium radiobacter MTCC 8161,” Acta Chimica Slovencia 2008, 55, 320-329.
 
[39]  Garg, S.K., Tripathi, M., Singh, S.K., Tiwari, J.K. “Biodecolorization of textile dye effluent by Pseudomonas putida SKG-1 (MTCC 10510) under the conditions optimized for mono azo dye Orange II color removal in simulated minimal salt medium,” International Biodeterioration and Biodegradation 2012, 74, 24-35.
 
[40]  Sivaraj, R., Agnes, C., Dorthy, M., Venckatesh, R. “Isolation, characterization and growth kinetics of bacteria metabolizing textile effluent,” Journal of Bioscience and Technology 2011, 2(4), 324-330.
 
[41]  Padmavathy, S., Sandhya, S., Swaminathan, K., Subrahmanyam, Y.U., Kaul, S.N. “Comparison of decolorization of reactive azo dyes by microorganisms isolated from various sources,” Journal of Environmental Sciences, 2003, 15(5), 628–633.
 
[42]  Ramya, M., Anusha, B., Kalavathy, S. “Decolorization and biodegradation of Indigo carmine by a textile soil isolate Paenibacillus larvae,” Biodegradation 2008, 19, 283-291.
 
[43]  Lade, H.S., Govindwar, S.P., Paul, D. “Mineralization and detoxification of the carcinogenic azo dye congo red and real textile effluent by a polyurethane foam immobilized microbial consortia in an upflow column bioreactor,” International Journal of Environmental Research & Public Health 2015, 12, 6894-6918.
 
[44]  Casieri, L., Varese, G.C., Anastasi, A., Prigione, V., Svobodova, K., Filippelo Marchisio, V., Novotny, N.S. “Decolorization and Detoxication of reactive industrial dyes by immobilized fungi Trametes Pubescens and Pleurotus ostreatus,” Folia Microbiology 2008, 53(1), 44-52.
 
[45]  Kalyani, D.C., Patil, P.S., Jadhav, J.P., Govindwar, S.P. “Biodegradation of reactive textile dye Red BLI by an isolated bacterium Pseudomonas sp. SUK1,” Bioresource Technology 2008, 99, 4635-4641.
 
[46]  Khan, Z., Jain, K., Soni, A., Madamwar, D. “Microaerophilic degradation of sulphonated azo dye–Reactive Red 195 by bacterial consortium AR1 through co-metabolism,” International Biodeterioration and Biodegradation 2014, 94, 167-175.
 
[47]  Bedekar, P.A., Saratale, R.G., Saratale, G.D., Govindwar, S.P. “Development of low cost upflow column bioreactor for degradation and detoxification of Blue HERD and textile effluent by Lysinibacillus sp. RGS immobilized on loofa. International Biodeterioration and Biodegradation 2014, 96, 112-120.
 
[48]  Khehra, M.S., Saini, H.S., Sharma, D.K., Chadha, B.S., Chimni, S.S. “Biodegradation of azo dye C.I. Acid Red 88 by an anoxic-aerobic sequential bioreactor,” Dyes and Pigments 2006, 70, 1-7.
 
[49]  Chen, C.Y., Kuo, J.T., Cheng, C.Y., Huang, Y.T., Ho, I.H., Chung, Y.C. “Biological decolorization of dye solution containing malachite green by Pandoraea pulmonicola YC32 using a batch and continuous system,” Journal of Hazardous Materials 2009, 172, 1439-1445.
 
[50]  Jain, K., Shah, V., Chapla, D., Madamwar, D. “Decolorization and degradation of azo dye- Reactive Violet 5R by an acclimatized indigenous bacterial mixed cultures-SB4 isolated from anthropogenic dye contaminated soil,” Journal of Hazardous Materials 2012, 213-214, 378-386.
 
[51]  Holkar, C.R., Pandit, A.B., Pinjari, D.V. “Kinetics of biological decolorization of anthraquinone based Reactive Blue 19 using and isolated strain of Enterobacter sp. F NCIM 5545,” Bioresource Technology 2014, 173, 342-351.
 
[52]  Pathak, H., Soni, D., Chauhan, K. “Evaluation of in vitro efficacy for decolorization and degradation of commercial azo dye RB-B by Morganella sp. HK-1 isolated from dye contaminated industrial landfill,” Chemosphere 2014, 126-132.
 
[53]  Balapure, K., Bhatt, N., Madamwar, D. “Mineralization of reactive azo dyes present in simulated textile wastewater using down flow microaerophilic fixed film bioreactor,” Bioresource Technology 2015, 175, 1-7.
 
[54]  Pokharia, A., Ahluwalia, S.S. “Toxicological effect of textile dyes and their metabolites: A review,” Current Trends in Biotechnology and Chemical Research 2015, 5(1), 11-17,
 
[55]  Sheth, N.T., Dave, S.R. “Optimization of enhanced decolorization and degradation of Reactive Red BS C.I. 111 by Pseudomonas aeruginosa NGKCTS,” Biodegradation 2009, 20, 827-836.