International Journal of Environmental Bioremediation & Biodegradation
ISSN (Print): 2333-8628 ISSN (Online): 2333-8636 Website: http://www.sciepub.com/journal/ijebb Editor-in-chief: Apply for this position
Open Access
Journal Browser
Go
International Journal of Environmental Bioremediation & Biodegradation. 2015, 3(1), 23-27
DOI: 10.12691/ijebb-3-1-4
Open AccessArticle

Bacterial Degradation of the Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) -Fraction of Refinery Effluent

Esedafe W. K.1, Fagade O. E.1, Umaru F. F.2, and Akinwotu O.1

1Department of Microbiology, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria

2Department of Biological Sciences, Taraba State University, Jalingo, Nigeria

Pub. Date: February 26, 2015

Cite this paper:
Esedafe W. K., Fagade O. E., Umaru F. F. and Akinwotu O.. Bacterial Degradation of the Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) -Fraction of Refinery Effluent. International Journal of Environmental Bioremediation & Biodegradation. 2015; 3(1):23-27. doi: 10.12691/ijebb-3-1-4

Abstract

The occurrence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in refinery effluents is of great concern globally due to its persistence, recalcitrance and carcinogenicity. This study was aimed at bacterial degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in untreated refinery effluent. Contaminated soil samples were collected from Warri refinery jetty while water sample was collected from Ekpan River and untreated effluent was collected from Warri refinery and Petrochemical Company. The total heterotrophic bacterial count ranged from 0.6 × 106 to 2.7 × 106 cfu/ml for soil samples and 3.2 × 106 cfu/ml for water sample. The hydrocarbon utilizing bacteria count ranged from 1.4 × 103 to 2.0 × 103 cfu/ml for soil samples and 1.0 × 103cfu/ml for water sample. Among the 41 bacterial isolates capable of utilizing crude oil vapour, 26 gave a positive emulsification activity on crude oil while only 3 were capable of degrading anthracene and phenanthrene. The three (3) PAH-degraders were characterized and identified as Pseudomonassp(SB), Achromobacterxylosoxidans(SB1) and Pseudomonassp(SB3). The percentage degradation of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the refinery effluent after 360hours was highest in the mixed bacterial culture with 97.90% and this was followed closely by Pseudomonassp(SB) with 96% and Achromobacterxylosoxidans(SB1) having the lowest with 93.40%.

Keywords:
refinery effluent polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons biodegradation biosurfactant

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

References:

[1]  Adebusoye, S.A., Amund, O.O., Ilori, M.A., Domeih, D.O. and Okpuzor, J. 2008.Growth and biosurfactant synthesis by Nigerian hydrocarbon-degrading estuarine bacteria. International Journal of Tropical Biology, 56:4:1603-1611.
 
[2]  Adelowo, O. O and Oloke, J.K. 2002.Comparison of the Emulsification and Oil Displacement Profile of some Biosurfactants. NISEB J. 2. 3:181-186.
 
[3]  Adelowo,O.O., Alagbe, S.O. and Ayandele, A.A. 2006.Time-dependent stability of used engine oil degradation by cultures of Pseudomonas fragiand Achromobacteraerogenes. African Journal of Biotechnology. 5. 24:2476-2479.
 
[4]  Akpor O.B., O.E Igbinosa and O.O Igbinosa, 2007.Studies on the Effect of Petroleum Hydrocarbon on the Microbial and Physico-Chemicals Characteristics of Soil.African Journal ofBiotechnology. 6. 16: 1939-1943.
 
[5]  Alley J.F and L. R. Brown. 2000. Use of Sublimation to Prepare Solid Microbial Media with Water-Insoluble Substrates. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 66.1: 439-442.
 
[6]  Al-Thani, R.F., Abd-El-Haleem, D.A.M. and Al-Shammri, M. 2009.Isolation and characterization of polyaromatic hydrocarbons-degrading bacteria from different Qatari soils.African Journal of Microbiology Research.3.11: 761-766.
 
[7]  Amund O. O andIgiri C. O. 1990.Biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbon under tropical estuarine conditions.World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology.16: 118-121.
 
[8]  Balogun, S.A. andFagade, O.E. 2010.Emulsifying bacteria in produce water from Niger-Delta, Nigeria.African Journal of Microbiology Research. 4. 9:730-734.
 
[9]  Barrow, G. I. and Feltham, R. K. A. 1993. Cowan and Steel’s Manual for the Identification of Medical Bacteria, Cambridge University press.
 
[10]  Déziel, E., Paquette, G., Villemur, R., Lépine, F. and Bisaillon, J. 1996. Biosurfactant production by a soil Pseudomonas strain growing on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Applied Environmental Microbiology.62:1908-12.
 
[11]  Fagade, O. E. 1990. Bacterial Degradation of Crude oil from the Niger Delta area of Nigeria. Unpublished Ph.D Thesis, Dept of Botany and Microbiology University of Ibadan, Nigeria. pp. 77-79.
 
[12]  Harry, M.F. 1995. Industrial Pollution Handbook. McGraw Hill. Inc., New York
 
[13]  Hassan E. A., Elsayed E. H., Azhar A. H., Amany, G. A. and Amr A. E. 2009. Isolation and Identification of Three-RingsPolyaromatic Hydrocarbons (Anthracene and Phenanthrene) Degrading Bacteria. American-Eurasian Journal of Agriculture and Environmental Science.5.1: 31-38.
 
[14]  Holt, J.G., Kreig, W.R., Sneath, P.H.A., Staley, J.T and William, S.T. 1994.Bergey’s Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9thedn, Williams and Wilkinson, A., Waverly Company.
 
[15]  Idise, O. E., Ameh, J.B., Yakubu, S.E. andOkuofu, C.A. 2010. Biodegradation of a refinery effluent treated with organic fertilizer by modified strains of Bacillus cereus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.African Journal of Biotechnology, 9. 22: 3298-3302.
 
[16]  Igwo-Ezikpe, M.N., Gbenle, O.G., Ilori, M.O., Okpuzor, J. andOsuntoki, A. A. 2010. High Molecular Weight Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Biodegradation by Bacteria Isolated from Isolated from Contaminated Soils in Nigeria. Research Journal of Environmental Sciences. 4.2: 127-137.
 
[17]  Ilori, M.O., Amobi, C.J. and Odocha, A.C. 2005. Factors affecting biosurfactant production by oil degrading Aeromonas sp. isolated from a tropical environment. Chemosphere 61:985-992.
 
[18]  John R. C., Essien, J. P., Akpan,S. B. and Okpokwasili, G. C. 2012. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon-degrading Bacteria from Aviation Fuel Spill Site at Ibeno, Nigeria.Bull Journal of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology. 88:1014-1019.
 
[19]  Keeney, D. R. and Nelson, D. W. 1982. Nitrogen-Inorganic forms. In: Methods of Soil Analysis part 2: Chemical and microbiological properties, 2ndedn, page AL, Miller R. H, Keeney D.R.(eds) Agronomy 9/2, American society of Agronomy, Madison, WI, pp. 643-698.
 
[20]  Lewis, D., Hodson, R. and Freeman, L. 1984. Effects of microbial community interactions on transformation rates of xenobioticchemicals.Applied Environmental Microbiology 48: 561-565.
 
[21]  Mills, A. L., Breuil, C. and Colwell. 1978. Enumeration of Petroleum degrading marine and estuarine microorganisms by most probable number method. Canadian Journal of Microbiology, 12: 234-248.
 
[22]  Mrayyana, B. andBattikhi, M.N. 2005.Biodegradation of total organic carbons (TOC) in Jordanian petroleum sludge.Journal of HazardousMaterial. 120: 127-134.
 
[23]  Murphy, J. and Riley, J.P. 1962. Analytical Chemistry Acta. 2. 27: 31-36.
 
[24]  Nweke, C. O. and Okpokwasili, G. C. 2003. Drilling Fluid Base Oil Biodegradation Potential of a Soil Staphylococcus Species.African Journal of Biotechnology. 2.9: 293-295.
 
[25]  Okerentugba, P. O. and Ezeronye, O. U. 2003. Petroleum Degrading Potentials of Single and Mixed Microbial Cultures Isolated From Rivers AndRefinery Effluents In Nigeria. African Journal of Biotechnology. 2.9: 293-295.
 
[26]  Raymond, R.L., Audson, J. O. and Jamison, V.W. 1976. Oil degradation insoil. Applied Environmental Microbiology. 31: 522–535.
 
[27]  Saien, J. andNejati, H. 2007. Enhanced photocatalytic degradation of pollutants in petroleum refinery wastewater under mild conditions.Journal of HazardousMaterial. 148:491-495.
 
[28]  Salehizadeh, H. and Mohammadizad, S. 2009. Microbial enhanced oil recovery using biosurfactant produced by Alcaligenesfaecalis. Iranian Journal of Biotechnology.7.4: 216-223.
 
[29]  Santos, E. C., Jacques, J. S. R., Bento, M. F., Peralba, R. M. C and Selbach, P. A et al. 2008. Anthracene biodegradation and surface activity by an iron-stimulated Pseudomonas sp. Bioresource technology, 2549-2644.
 
[30]  Singh, C. and Lin, J. 2008. Isolation and characterization of diesel oil degrading indigenous microrganisms in Kwazulu-Natal, South Africa. African Journal of Biotechnology. 7.12: 1927-1932.
 
[31]  Wan, N., Gu, J. and Yan, Y. 2006. Degradation of p-nitrophenol byAchromobacterxylosoxidans NS isolated from wetland sediment.International journal of Biodeterioration and Biodegradation 59: 90-96.
 
[32]  Woo, S. H., Jeon, C. O. and Park, J. M. 2004. Phenanthrene biodegradation in soil slurry systems: Influence of salicyclate and triton X-100. Korean Journal of Chemical Engineering, 21: 412-418.