International Journal of Environmental Bioremediation & Biodegradation
ISSN (Print): 2333-8628 ISSN (Online): 2333-8636 Website: Editor-in-chief: Apply for this position
Open Access
Journal Browser
International Journal of Environmental Bioremediation & Biodegradation. 2014, 2(1), 12-17
DOI: 10.12691/ijebb-2-1-3
Open AccessArticle

Exploring the Strength of Pseudomonas Putida ETL-7 in Microbial Degradation and Decolorization of Remazol Black-B

Maulin P Shah1,

1Industrial Waste Water Research Laboratory, Division of Applied & Environmental Microbiology, Enviro Technology Limited, GIDC, Ankleshwar, Gujarat, India

Pub. Date: January 17, 2014

Cite this paper:
Maulin P Shah. Exploring the Strength of Pseudomonas Putida ETL-7 in Microbial Degradation and Decolorization of Remazol Black-B. International Journal of Environmental Bioremediation & Biodegradation. 2014; 2(1):12-17. doi: 10.12691/ijebb-2-1-3


Azo dyes represent a major group of dyes causing environmental concern because of their colour, biorecalcitrance nature and potential toxicity to living beings. In the present study an attempt was made to examine the potential of Pseudomonas putida for decolorization of azo dye-Remazol Black B in batch reactor. The influence of different concentration of glucose, pH and temperature on decolorization was studied to find the optimum conditions required for maximum decolorization and degradation. pH 7.0 and 350 C were considered to be the optimum decolorizing conditions because in these conditions only the maximum decolorize was found. 5 g/L glucose present media showed the maximum decolorization. The bacterium exhibited a remarkable color removal capability over a wide range of dye concentration (50-200 mg/l), Colorless cells of P. putida and UV Visible spectroscopic analyses suggested that the decolorizing activity only through biodegradation not by inactive surface adsorption. The above results show the potential of this bacterial strain to be used in the biological treatment of textile effluent under optimum condition.

Pseudomonas Decolorization pH temperature Remazol Black-B

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit


[1]  Aksu, Z. (2003). Reactive dye bioaccumulation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Pro. Biochem. 38: 1437-1444.
[2]  Bhatt Nikhil,T., T. Sapna and Kshama, B. (2012). Biodegradation of reactive red M8B by bacterial consortium SpNb1 Indian J.Sci.Technol. 5 (7): 3047-3053.
[3]  Cetin, D., and Donmez, G. (2006). Decolorization of reactive dyes by mixed cultures isolated from textile effluent under anaerobic conditions. Enz. Microb. Technol. 38: 926-930.
[4]  Chen, K.C., J.Y. Wu, D.J. Liou, Hwang, S.C.J. (2003). Decolorization of the textile dyes by newly isolated bacterial strains. J. Biotechnol. 101: 57-68.
[5]  Dafale, N., N.N. Rao, S.U. Meshram, Wate, S. R. (2008). Decolorization of azo dyes and simulated dye bath wastewater using acclimatized microbial consortium Biostimulation and halo tolerance. Biores. Technol. 99: 2552-2558.
[6]  Duran, N., and Esposito, E. (2000). Potential applications of oxidative enzymes and phenoloxidase-like compounds in wastewater and soil treatment: a review. Appl. Cataly. B: Environ. 28: 83-99.
[7]  Gharbani, P., S.M. Tabatabaii, Mehrizad, A. (2008). Removal of congo red from textile wastewater by ozonation. Intr. J. Environl. Sci. Technol. 5 (4): 495-500.
[8]  Gopinath, K. P., H.A.M. Sahib, K. Muthukumar, Velan, M. (2009). Improved biodegradation of Congo red by Bacillus sp. Biores. Technol. 100: 670-675.
[9]  Guo, J.B., J.T. Zhou, D. Wang, C.P. Tian, P. Wang, M.S. Uddin, Yu, H. (2007). Biocatalyst effects of immobilized anthraquinone on the anaerobic reduction of azo dyes by the salt-tolerant bacteria. Water. Res. 41: 426-432.
[10]  Holtz, J. D. (1993). Bergey s manual of determinative bacteriology (9th ed.). Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins.
[11]  Hsueh, C. L., Y.H. Huang, C.C. Wang, Chen, S. (2005). Degradation of azo dyes using low iron concentration of Fenton and Fenton-like system, Chemosph. 58: 1409-1414.
[12]  Khadijah, O., K.K. Lee, Abdullah, M. F. (2009). Isolation, screening and development of local bacterial consortia with azo dyes decolourising capability, Mal. J. Microbiol. 5 (1): 25-32.
[13]  Kilic, N.K., J.L. Nielsen, M. Yuce, Donmez, G. (2007). Characterization of a simple bacterial consortium for effective treatment of wastewaters with reactive dyes and Cr (VI). Chemosph. 67: 826-831.
[14]  Maulin P Shah, Patel KA, Nair SS, Darji AM (2013) Bioremoval of Azo dye Reactive Red by Bacillus spp. ETL-1982. J Bioremed Biodeg 4: 3.
[15]  Mester, T, Tien, M. (2000). Oxidative mechanism of ligninolytic enzymes involved in the degradation of environmental pollutants. Inter. Biodeterior.Biodegra. 46: 51-59.
[16]  Minussi, R. C., S.G. de Moraes, G.M. Pastore, Duran, N. (2001). Biodecolourization screening of synthetic dyes by white rot fungi in solid medium. Possible role of siderophores. Lett. Appl Microbiol, 33 (1): 21-25.
[17]  Olukanni, O. D., A.A. Osuntoki, Gbenle, G.O. (2009). Decolourization of Azo dyes by strain of Micrococcus isolated from a refuse dump soil. Biotechnol. 8: 442-448.
[18]  Olukanni, O.D., A.A. Osuntoki, Gbenle, G.O. (2006). Textile effluent biodegradation potentials of textile effluent-adapted and non-adapted bacteria. Afri. J. Biotechnol. 5: 1980-1984.
[19]  Pagga U, Brown D (1986) The degradation of dyestuffs: Part II. Behaviour of dyestuffs in aerobic biodegradation tests. Chemosphere 15: 479-491.
[20]  Pandey, A., P. Singh. Iyengar, L. (2007). Bacterial decolorization and degradation of azo dyes. Inter. Biodeterior.Biodegra. 59: 73-84.
[21]  Panswad, T., Luangdilok, W. (2000). Decolorization of reactive dyes with different molecular structures under different environmental conditions. Water. Res.34: 4177-4184.
[22]  Pearce CI, Lloyd JR, Guthrie JT (2003) The removal of colour from textile wastewater using whole bacterial cells: a review. Dyes and Pigments 58: 179-196.
[23]  Rafii F, Franklin W, Cerniglia CE (1990) Azoreductase activity of anaerobic bacteria isolated from human intestinal microflora. Appl Environ Microbiol 56: 2146-2151.
[24]  Reyes, P., M.A. Pickard, Vazquez-Duhal, R. (1999). Hydroxybenzotriazole increases the range of textile dyes decolourized by immobilized laccase. Biotechnol. Lett. 21: 875-880.
[25]  Rodrigue, E., M.A. Pickard, Vazquez-Duhal, R. (1999). Industrial dye decolourization by laccases from ligninolytic fungi. Curr. Microbiol. 38: 27-32.
[26]  Saratale, R.G., G.D. Saratale, J.S. Chang, Govindwar, S.P. (2010). Decolorization and degradation of reactive dyes and dye wastewater by a developed bacterial consortium. Biodegra. 21: 999-1015.
[27]  Senan, R.C., Abraham E.T. (2004). Bioremediation of textile azo dyes by aerobic bacterial consortium. Biodegra. 15: 275-280.
[28]  Wang, H., Su, J. Qs., Zheng, W. X., Tian, Y., Xiong, X. J., and Xheng, T. L. (2009). “Bacterial Decolorization and Degradation of the Reactive Dye Reactive Red 180 by Citrobacter sp. CK3.” International Biodeterioration and Biodegradation 63: 395-399.
[29]  Wu Y., Y. Hu , Z. Xie, S. Feng, B. Li, Mi X. 2011 .Characterization of Biosorption Process of Acid Orange 7 on Waste Brewery s Yeast. Appl. Biochem. Biotechnol. 163: 882-894.
[30]  Wuhrmann K, Mechsner KI, Kappeler T (1980) Investigation on ratedetermining factors in the microbial reduction of azo dyes. European journal of applied microbiology and biotechnology 9: 325-338.