International Journal of Environmental Bioremediation & Biodegradation
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International Journal of Environmental Bioremediation & Biodegradation. 2019, 7(1), 49-56
DOI: 10.12691/ijebb-7-1-4
Open AccessArticle

Toxicological Impact Analysis of Industrial Loads and Microbial Contamination on the Upper Awash River, Ethiopia

Mesele Admassu Mersha1, and Gelaneh Woldemichael Kebede1

1Department of Biology, Adama Science and Technology, Ethiopia

Pub. Date: November 12, 2019

Cite this paper:
Mesele Admassu Mersha and Gelaneh Woldemichael Kebede. Toxicological Impact Analysis of Industrial Loads and Microbial Contamination on the Upper Awash River, Ethiopia. International Journal of Environmental Bioremediation & Biodegradation. 2019; 7(1):49-56. doi: 10.12691/ijebb-7-1-4


A study on Toxicological Impact Analysis of Industrial Loads on the Upper Awash River and the Surrounding Ecosystems was conducted from October 2017 to April 2019. The study covered the middle upper Awash basin which is in highly industrialized zone of the country. The samples for both physicochemical and microbial analysis were taken from different locations from the river (Koka incoming, Koka outgoing, Wonji and Awash Melkasa) sites. Physicochemical analysis was done with Wagtech photometer 7100 and the Comparator Reagents for respective parameters, Wagthech pH/temp/mV Meter and Turbidity Meter. Eijkman test (WHO, 2004), and method reference APC (aerobic bacteria Plate Count), APHA, 1995 (American Public Health Association), ICMSF, 1988 (International Commission on Microbiological Specifications for Food) were used to determine microbial population as well as level of contamination in Awash River water. The results for physicochemical water quality parameters show that all the samples were highly turbid with high amount of TSS, TDS and considerable amount of Ca-Mg hardness. Parameters such as nitrate, nitrite, chlorine and fluoride are measured to be above WHO standards. The water samples taken from Awash River were analyzed to check microbial contamination and it was found that coliforms count was >180MPN/100 ml, fecal coliforms also > 90MPN/100ml and E.coli was also detected in the water samples. The accepted MPN for Coliforms is < 30/100ml and for Feacl coliforms < 1MPN/100ml. The population of coliforms and fecal coliforms those were estimated are very critical to cause different waterborne diseases and the result obtained is so much far from the accepted level. The water is polluted with nitrate, nitrite chlorine and fluorine and as result it is aesthetically and heath wise unacceptable. Therefore, before Awash River becomes out of use, it needs an immediate governmental and non-governmental institutions intervention.

aquatic ecosystem Awash River chemical pollution contamination heavy metals industrial waste

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