International Journal of Dental Sciences and Research
ISSN (Print): 2333-1135 ISSN (Online): 2333-1259 Website: http://www.sciepub.com/journal/ijdsr Editor-in-chief: Marcos Roberto Tovani Palone
Open Access
Journal Browser
Go
International Journal of Dental Sciences and Research. 2020, 8(4), 112-118
DOI: 10.12691/ijdsr-8-4-7
Open AccessArticle

Force Applied by Dentists during Cementation of All Zirconia Three Unit Bridges and Its Impact on Seating

Nawaf M Almustafa1, , David NJ Ricketts2, Graham Chadwick2 and William Saunders2

1Dammam Specialist Dental Center, Dammam Medical Complex - MOH, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

2Restorative Department, University of Dundee, Dundee, United Kingdom

Pub. Date: June 27, 2020

Cite this paper:
Nawaf M Almustafa, David NJ Ricketts, Graham Chadwick and William Saunders. Force Applied by Dentists during Cementation of All Zirconia Three Unit Bridges and Its Impact on Seating. International Journal of Dental Sciences and Research. 2020; 8(4):112-118. doi: 10.12691/ijdsr-8-4-7

Abstract

Dental luting cements are important materials in securing FPD to abutment teeth. During the cementation process of FPDs finger force is applied to fully seat the restoration in place. Normally the dentist maintains force on the restoration until the luting cement sets, however, little is known as to the consistency of force application over time. The aim of this study was to compare the force applied by dentists during cementation of all-Zirconia FPD manufactured by CAD CAM and to investigate the effect that this has on the seating and fit of the cemented FPD. Two plastic teeth mounted in Frasaco jaws (teeth 24 and 26 were prepared for a three unit all ceramic (zirconia) bridge to replace tooth 25. Each tooth was prepared in the laboratory with a high-speed hand piece and coolant to a pre-set standard. Ten practitioners were recruited for this study and allocated one SLA model and one all zirconia bridge each. RelyX™ Unicem 2 Clicker™ self-adhesive Universal Resin Cement was used as the luting cement. Each examiner performed the seating procedure six times over a two week period, the participants applied the force for two minutes in each time. To measure the cementation force (Newton), a universal testing machine (Instron) was used. Finally, the internal and marginal fit (µm) was determined using SEM. The results showed high initial force which reduced and plateaued after 30 seconds. Maximum force applied was 88.0 N and the minimum was 8.0 N with a mean value of 27.23 N. SPSS was used to perform statistical analysis. Two-way ANOVA with post hoc test were performed on the force results and showed significant difference between most examiners. One-way ANOVA was performed on the internal and marginal fit results and this showed no significant difference between all examiners. Dentists apply different forces when seating FPDs but this does not affect the internal and marginal fit of FPD.

Keywords:
CAD-CAM Zirconia cementation force fixed prosthodontics

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

Figures

Figure of 6

References:

[1]  Wassell, R.W., D. Barker, and J.G. Steele, Crowns and other extra-coronal restorations: try-in and cementation of crowns. British Dental Journal, 2002. 193(1): p. 17-20, 23-28.
 
[2]  Silvey, R.G. and G.E. Myers, Clinical study of dental cements. VI. A study of zinc phosphate, EBA-reinforced zinc oxide eugenol and polyacrylic acid cements as luting agents in fixed prostheses. Journal of Dental Research, 1977. 56(10): p. 1215-1218.
 
[3]  Kious, A.R., H.W. Roberts, and W.W. Brackett, Film thicknesses of recently introduced luting cements. Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry, 2009. 101(3): p. 189-192.
 
[4]  Black, S. and J.N. Amoore, Measurement of forces applied during the clinical cementation of dental crowns. Physiological Measurement, 1993. 14(3): p. 387-392.
 
[5]  Mustafa, Z., et al., Effects of Finger Pressure Applied By Dentists during Cementation of All-Ceramic Crowns. European Journal of Dentistry., 2010. 4(4): p. 383-388.
 
[6]  Byrne, G., Influence of finish-line form on crown cementation. The International Journal of Prosthodontics, 1992. 5(2): p. 137-144.
 
[7]  Chan, D.C.N., et al., Effect of preparation convergence on retention and seating discrepancy of complete veneer crowns. Journal of Oral Rehabilitation, 2004. 31(10): p. 1007-1013.
 
[8]  Beuer, F., et al., Effect of preparation design on the fracture resistance of zirconia crown copings. Dental Materials Journal, 2008. 27(3): p. 362-367.
 
[9]  Beuer, F., et al., Effect of preparation angles on the precision of zirconia crown copings fabricated by CAD/CAM system. Dental Materials Journal, 2008. 27(6): p. 814-820.
 
[10]  Beuer, F., et al., Influence of preparation angle on marginal and internal fit of CAD/CAM-fabricated zirconia crown copings. Quintessence International (Berlin, Germany : 1985), 2009. 40(3): p. 243-250.
 
[11]  Comlekoglu, M., et al., Influence of cervical finish line type on the marginal adaptation of zirconia ceramic crowns. Operative Dentistry, 2009. 34(5): p. 586-592.
 
[12]  Bates, J.F., G.D. Stafford, and A. Harrison, Masticatory function: a review of the literature. (II) Speed of movement of the mandible, rate of chewing and forces developed in chewing. Journal of Oral Rehabilitation, 1975. 2(4): p. 349-361.
 
[13]  Gibbs, C.H., et al., Limits of human bite strength. The Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry, 1986. 56(2): p. 226-229.
 
[14]  Helkimo, E., G.E. Carlsson, and M. Helkimo, Bite force and state of dentition. Acta Odontologica Scandinavica, 1977. 35(6): p. 297-303.
 
[15]  Tortopidis, D., M.F. Lyons, and R.H. Baxendale, Acoustic myography, electromyography and bite force in the masseter muscle. Journal of Oral Rehabilitation, 1998. 25(12): p. 940-945.
 
[16]  Shinogaya, T., et al., Effects of ethnicity, gender and age on clenching force and load distribution. Clinical Oral Investigations, 2001. 5(1): p. 63-68.
 
[17]  Koç, D., A. Doǧan, and B. Bek, Effect of gender, facial dimensions, body mass index and type of functional occlusion on bite force. Journal of Applied Oral Science, 2011. 19(3): p. 274-279.
 
[18]  Kiliaridis, S., et al., The relationship between maximal bite force, bite force endurance, and facial morphology during growth. A cross-sectional study. Acta Odontologica Scandinavica, 1993. 51(5): p. 323-331.
 
[19]  Bakke, M., Bite Force and Occlusion. Seminars in Orthodontics, 2006. 12(2): p. 120-126.
 
[20]  Palinkas, M., et al., Age and gender influence on maximal bite force and masticatory muscles thickness. Archives of Oral Biology, 2010. 55(10): p. 797-802.
 
[21]  Ringqvist, M., Isometric bite force and its relation to dimensions of the facial skeleton. Acta Odontologica Scandinavica, 1973. 31(1): p. 35-42.
 
[22]  Waltimo, A., M. Nyström, and M. Könönen, Bite force and dentofacial morphology in men with severe dental attrition. Scandinavian Journal of Dental Research, 1994. 102(2): p. 92-96.
 
[23]  Bonakdarchian, M., N. Askari, and M. Askari, Effect of face form on maximal molar bite force with natural dentition. Archives of Oral Biology, 2009. 54(3): p. 201-204.
 
[24]  Bakke, M., et al., Unilateral, isometric bite force in 8-68-year-old women and men related to occlusal factors. Scandinavian Journal of Dental Research, 1990. 98(2): p. 149-158.
 
[25]  Williams, W.N., et al., The effect of periodontal bone loss on bite force discrimination. Journal of Periodontology, 1987. 58(4): p. 236-239.
 
[26]  Alkan, A., et al., The effect of periodontitis on biting abilities. Journal of Periodontology, 2006. 77(8): p. 1442-1445.
 
[27]  Kleinfelder, J.W. and K. Ludwig, Maximal bite force in patients with reduced periodontal tissue support with and without splinting. Journal of Periodontology, 2002. 73(10): p. 1184-1187.
 
[28]  Morita, M., et al., Correlation between periodontal status and biting ability in Chinese adult population. Journal of Oral Rehabilitation, 2003. 30(3): p. 260-264.
 
[29]  Kogawa, E.M., et al., Evaluation of maximal bite force in temporomandibular disorders patients. Journal of Oral Rehabilitation, 2006. 33(8): p. 559-565.
 
[30]  Pizolato, R.A., et al., Maximal bite force in young adults with temporomandibular disorders and bruxism. Brazilian Oral Research, 2007. 21(3): p. 278-283.
 
[31]  Proussaefs, P., Crowns Cemented on Crown Preparations Lacking Geometric Resistance Form. Part II: Effect of Cement. Journal of Prosthodontics, 2004. 13(1): p. 36-41.
 
[32]  Palacios, R.P., et al., Retention of zirconium oxide ceramic crowns with three types of cement. Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry, 2006. 96(2): p. 104-114.
 
[33]  Johnson, G.H., et al., Retention of metal-ceramic crowns with contemporary dental cements. Journal of the American Dental Association, 2009. 140(9): p. 1125-1136.
 
[34]  Chieffi, N., et al., The effect of application sustained seating pressure on adhesive luting procedure. Dental Materials, 2007. 23(2): p. 159-164.
 
[35]  Groten, M., et al., Determination of the minimum number of marginal gap measurements required for practical in vitro testing. Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry, 2000. 83(1): p. 40-49.
 
[36]  Nawafleh, N.A., et al., Accuracy and reliability of methods to measure marginal adaptation of crowns and FDPs: A literature review. Journal of Prosthodontics, 2013. 22(5): p. 419-428.
 
[37]  Bindl, A. and W.H. MÖRmann, Marginal and internal fit of all-ceramic CAD/CAM crown-copings on chamfer preparations. Journal of Oral Rehabilitation, 2005. 32(6): p. 441-447.
 
[38]  Marcela Herrera, et al., Marginal discrepancy and microleakage in crown-copings fabricated by three CAD/CAM systems: An in vitro study. Open Journal of Stomatology, 2012. 2: p. 163-169.
 
[39]  Lee, K.B., et al., Marginal and internal fit of all-ceramic crowns fabricated with two different CAD/CAM systems. Dent Mater J, 2008. 27(3): p. 422-6.
 
[40]  Song, T.-J., et al., Marginal fit of anterior 3-unit fixed partial zirconia restorations using different CAD/CAM systems. J Adv Prosthodont, 2013. 5(3): p. 219-225.