International Journal of Clinical Nutrition
ISSN (Print): 2376-1385 ISSN (Online): 2376-1393 Website: http://www.sciepub.com/journal/ijcn Editor-in-chief: Apply for this position
Open Access
Journal Browser
Go
International Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2015, 3(1), 1-6
DOI: 10.12691/ijcn-3-1-1
Open AccessArticle

Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome and Its Components among Overweight and Obese Secondary School Adolescent in SFAX, Tunisia

Sofien Regaieg1, Nadia Charfi1, Sourour Kamoun2, Mouna Eulleuch3, , Rim Marrakchi4, Kamel jamoussi4, Jamel Damak2 and Mohamed Abid1

1Unit of Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome (UR04SP31), Department of Endocrinology, Hedi Chaker Hospital, University of Sfax, Tunisia

2Department of Community Medicine and Epidemiology, Hedi Chaker Hospital, Sfax, Tunisia

3Department of internal medicine, Sidi Bouzid Hospital, Tunisia

4Biochemistry Laboratory, Hedi Chaker Hospital, Sfax, Tunisia

Pub. Date: March 26, 2015

Cite this paper:
Sofien Regaieg, Nadia Charfi, Sourour Kamoun, Mouna Eulleuch, Rim Marrakchi, Kamel jamoussi, Jamel Damak and Mohamed Abid. Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome and Its Components among Overweight and Obese Secondary School Adolescent in SFAX, Tunisia. International Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2015; 3(1):1-6. doi: 10.12691/ijcn-3-1-1

Abstract

Objective: The metabolic syndrome (MetS) has become one of the major public-health challenges worldwide. Early identification of metabolic complications consist an essential target for youth public health. We aimed to evaluate the prevalence of MetS and its components among overweight and obese adolescents. Methods: This cross-sectional study concerned 51 overweight and obese adolescents. Anthropometric assessments, blood pressure measurement and biochemical assessment were done. MetS was defined according to the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) criteria. All data were collected during one academic school year in 2012 and 2013. Results: The prevalence of the MetS was 21.6%. There was no gender difference in prevalence of MetS (P=0.09). Obese subjects had the highest proportion of MetS than overweight (25% vs. 15.8%; p=0.04). 35.3% of subjects had at least two abnormalities of MetS. Abdominal obesity was the most common individual component of the MetS (91.3 %) followed by low HDL cholesterol (58.8%). Body mass index (BMI), Waist circumference (WC), Waist to hip ratio (WRH) and Neck circumference (NC) had partial positive correlation with Blood pressure (BP), and Triglyceride. Similarly, (BP), Triglyceride and HDL cholesterol were significantly higher in subjects with metabolic syndrome than that of subjects without metabolic syndrome (p < 0.05). Conclusion: MetS is prevalent in our young population in Sfax City. The results of this study will help in planning to control these problems in the future. So we suggest screening programs for secondary school adolescent to control obesity and MetS in Tunisia.

Keywords:
metabolic syndrome obesity prevalence adolescent

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

References:

[1]  Kaplan NM. The deadly quartet. Upper-body obesity, glucose intolerance, hypertriglyceridemia, and hypertension. Arch Intern Med, 1989; 149(7):1514-20.
 
[2]  Weiss R, Dziura J, Burgert TS, Tamborlane WV, Taksali SE, Yeckel CW, Allen K, Lopes M, Savoye M, Morrison J, Sherwin RS, Caprio S. Obesity and the metabolic syndrome in children and adolescents. N Engl J Med, 2004; 350(23): 2362-74.
 
[3]  Beilin L, Huang RC. Childhood obesity, hypertension, the metabolic syndrome and adult cardiovascular disease. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol, 2008, 35(4):409-411.
 
[4]  Cornier MA, Dabelea D, Hernandez TL, Lindstrom RC, Steig AJ, Stob NR, Van Pelt RE, Wang H, Eckel RH. The metabolic syndrome. Endocr Rev, 2008 ;29(7):777-822.
 
[5]  Sen Y, Kandemir N, Alikasifoghu A, Gonc N, Ozon A. Prevalence and risk factors of metabolic syndrome in obese children and adolescents: the role of the severity of obesity. Eur J Pediatr, 2008; 167(10): 1183-89.
 
[6]  Ghannem H. The challenge of preventing cardiovascular disease in Tunisia. Prev Chronic Dis, 2006;3(1): A13.
 
[7]  Ben Romdhane H, Haouala H, Belhani A, Drissa H, Kafsi N, Boujnah R, Mechm├Ęche R, Slimane ML, Achour N, Nacef T, Gueddiche M. Epidemiological transition and health impact of cardiovascular disease in Tunisia. Tun Med, 2005; 83(Suppl 5):1-7.
 
[8]  Jamoussi H, Mahjoub F, Sallemi H, Berriche O. Ounaissa K, Amrouche C, Blouza S. Metabolic syndrome in Tunisian obese children and adolescents. Tun Med, 2012 ; 90 (1 ) : 36-40.
 
[9]  Caceres M, Teran CG, Rodriguez S, Medina M. Prevalence of insulin resistance and its association with metabolic syndrome criteria among Bolivian children and adolescents with obesity. BMC Pediatr, 2008; 8: 31.
 
[10]  Eisenmann JC, Welk GJ, Wickel EE, Blair SN. Stability of variables associated with the metabolic syndrome from adolescence to adulthood: the Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study.Am J Hum Biol, 2004: 16(6):690-96.
 
[11]  Harzallah F, Alberti H, Ben Khalifa F. The metabolic syndrome in an Arab population: A first look at the new International Diabetes Federation criteria. Diabet Med, 2006; 23(4) :441-4.
 
[12]  Bouguerra R, Ben Salem L, Alberti H, Ben Rayana C, El Atti J, Blouza S, Gaigi S, Achour A, Ben Slama C, Zouari B. Prevalence of metabolic abnormalities in the Tunisian adults: A population based study. Diabetes Metab, 2006; 32(3): 215-21.
 
[13]  Zimmet P, Alberti G, Kaufman F, Tajima N, Silink M, Arslanian S, Wong G, Bennett P, Shaw J, Caprio S: The metabolic syndrome in children and adolescents. Lancet, 2007, 369(9579): 2059-2061.
 
[14]  Cole TJ, Bellizzi MC, Flegal KM, Dietz WH. Establishing a standard definition for child overweight and obesity worldwide: international survey. Br Med J, 2000; 320 (7244): 1240-3.
 
[15]  WHO Expert Committee: Physical status: The use and interpretation of anthropometry: report of a WHO expert committee (WHO Technical Report Series; 854) Geneva. World Health Organ Tech Rep Ser, 1995; 854: 1-452.
 
[16]  Tanner JM: Growth at adolescence; with a general consideration of the effects of hereditary and environmental factors upon growth and maturation from birth to maturity Oxford: Blackwell, 2d, 1962.
 
[17]  Rolland-Cachera MF, Deheeger M, Bellisle F. Waist circumference values in French boys and girls aged 6 to 16 years. Int J Obesity, 2001;25(Suppl. 2):S132.
 
[18]  Roya Kelishadi. Childhood Overweight, Obesity, and the Metabolic Syndrome in Developing Countries. Epidemiol Rev, 2007; 29: 62-76.
 
[19]  Agirbasli M, Cakir S, Ozme S, Ciliv G: Metabolic syndrome in Turkish children and adolescents. Metabolism, 2006, 55(8):1002-1006
 
[20]  Nasreddine L, Ouaijan K, Mansour M, Adra N, Sinno D, Hwalla N. Metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance in obese prepubertal children in Lebanon: A primary health concern. Ann Nutr Metab, 2010; 57(2) :135-42
 
[21]  Ann Jessup, MSN, RN, APRN, BC; and Joanne S. Harrell, PhD, RN, FAAN, FAHA. The Metabolic Syndrome: Look for It in Children and Adolescents, Too!. Clinical Diabetes, 2005 ;23(1):26-32.
 
[22]  Allal-Elasmi M, Haj Taieb S, Hsairi M, Zayani Y, Omar S, Sanhaji H, Jemaa R, Feki M, Elati J, Mebazaa A, Kaabachi N. The metabolic syndrome: prevalence, main characteristics and association with socio-economic status in adults living in Great Tunis.Diabetes Metab, 2010; 36(3):204-8.
 
[23]  Nguyen T HHD, Tang H K, Kelly P, van der Ploeg H P, Dibley J. Association between physical activity and metabolic syndrome: a cross sectional survey in adolescents in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. BMC Public Health, 2010; 10:141.
 
[24]  Lambert M, Paradis G, O'Loughlin J, Delvin EE, Hanley JA, Levy E. Insulin resistance syndrome in a representative sample of children and adolescents from Quebec, Canada. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord, 2004; 28(7):833-41
 
[25]  Kelishadi R, Ardalan G, Gheiratmand R, Adeli K, Delavari A, Majdzadeh R. Pediatric metabolic syndrome and associated anthropometric indices: CASPIAN study. Acta Paediatr, 2006; 95(12):1625-34.
 
[26]  Cook S, Weitzman M, Auinger P, Nguyen M, Dietz WH. Prevalence of a metabolic syndrome phenotype in adolescents: Findings from the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988-1994. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med, 2003; 157(8):821-7.
 
[27]  Park MJ, Boston BA, Oh M, Jee SH Prevalence and Trends of Metabolic Syndrome Among Korean Adolescents: From the Korean NHANES Survey, 1998-2005. J Pediatr, 2009, 155(4): 529-34.
 
[28]  Saito I, Mori M, Shibata H, Hirose H, Tsujioka M, Kawabe H: Prevalence of metabolic syndrome in young men in Japan. J Atheroscler Thromb, 2007, 14(1): 27-30.
 
[29]  Singh R, Bhansali A, Sialy R, Aggarwal A. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome in adolescents from a north Indian population. Diabet Med, 2007; 24(2): 195-9.
 
[30]  Li Y, Yang X, Zhai F, Kok FJ, Zhao W, Piao J, Zhang J, Cui Z, Ma G: Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in Chinese adolescents. Br J Nutr, 2008, 99(3):565-570.
 
[31]  Friedemann C, Heneghan C, Mahtani K, Thompson M Perera R, Ward A M. Cardiovascular disease risk in healthy children and its association with body mass index: systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ, 2012; 345:e4759.
 
[32]  Schwandt P, Kelishadi R, Haas GM. First reference curves of waist circumference for German children in comparison to international values: the PEP Family Heart Study. World J Pediatr, 2008, 4 (4): 259-66.
 
[33]  Freedman DS and Rimm AA. The relation of body fat distribution, as assessed by six girth measurements, to Diabetes Mellitus in women. Am J Public Health, 1989;79(6):715-20.
 
[34]  Vallianou NG, Evangelopoulos AA, Bountziouka V, Vogiatzakis ED, Bonou MS, Barbetseas J, Avgerinos PC, Panagiotakos DB..Neck circumference is correlated with triglycerides and inversely related with HDL cholesterol beyond BMI and waist circumference. Diabetes Metab Res Rev, 2013, 29(1):90-7.
 
[35]  Dalleck LC, Kjelland EM. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome and metabolic syndrome risk factors in college-aged students. Am J Health Promot, 2012; 27(1): 37-42.
 
[36]  Druet C, Dabbas M, Baltakse V, Payen C, Jouret B, Baud C, Chevenne D, Ricour C, Tauber M, Polak M, Alberti C, Levy-Marchal C Druet C, Dabbas M, Baltaske V. Insuline resistance and the metabolic syndrome in obese French children. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf), 2006;64 (6):672-8.
 
[37]  Mo-Suwan L, Lebel L. Risk factors for cardiovascular disease in obese and normal school children: association of insulin with other cardiovascular risk factors. Biomed Environ Sci, 1996; 9 (2-3): 269-75.
 
[38]  Khuwaja AK, Fatmi Z, Soomro WB, Khuwaja NK.Risk factors for cardiovascular disease in school children. J Pakistan Med Assoc, 2006; 53(9):346-50.
 
[39]  Misra A, Khurana L. Obesity and the metabolic syndrome in developing countries. J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 2008; 93 (11 Suppl 1):S9-30.