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International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neurology

ISSN (Print): ISSN Pending

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Content: Volume 2, Issue 1


Lipocalin-2: a New Regulator of Non-Pathogen-Associated Neuroinflammation

1Department of Biomedical Sciences, Texas Tech University HSC, Amarillo, Amarillo, TX

International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neurology. 2014, 2(1), 8-15
DOI: 10.12691/ijcen-2-1-3
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Manoj Banjara. Lipocalin-2: a New Regulator of Non-Pathogen-Associated Neuroinflammation. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neurology. 2014; 2(1):8-15. doi: 10.12691/ijcen-2-1-3.

Correspondence to: Manoj  Banjara, Department of Biomedical Sciences, Texas Tech University HSC, Amarillo, Amarillo, TX. Email:


Lipocalin is a family of small molecules transporting extracellular proteins. Lipocalin-2 (LCN2) is a member of the family that sequesters iron-bound bacterial siderophores. The well-accepted function of LCN2 protein is its anti-bacterial behavior, however, its role in iron regulation, cellular migration, death and morphology modulation have been speculated. Several reports have correlated the presence of LCN2 in the infected, injured and stressed brain, and its effect in neuronal and non-neuronal cell types in the central nervous system. This article reviews studies that demonstrated mechanisms and functions of LCN2 expression in inflammed brain (acute and chronic), particularly in non-pathogen-associated neuroinflammation. This review predicts that LCN2 can be an attractive target to reduce mortality and morbidity associated with uncontrollable neuroinflammation.



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Alcohol Abuse and Seizures: an Overview of Clinical Notions and Pathogenetic Theories

1Doctoral School, Faculty of Medical and Technical Sciences, University of Medicine in Tirana, Albania

2Biomedical and Experimental Department, Faculty of Medicine, University of Medicine in Tirana, Albania

International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neurology. 2014, 2(1), 4-7
DOI: 10.12691/ijcen-2-1-2
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Gjon Preçi, Gentian Vyshka. Alcohol Abuse and Seizures: an Overview of Clinical Notions and Pathogenetic Theories. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neurology. 2014; 2(1):4-7. doi: 10.12691/ijcen-2-1-2.

Correspondence to: Gentian  Vyshka, Biomedical and Experimental Department, Faculty of Medicine, University of Medicine in Tirana, Albania. Email:


Alcohol abuse is a major causative factor of different neurological disorders, among which seizures and epilepsy have an important burden of disease. Through discussing different pathogenetic mechanisms, scholars have tried to define and describe the diversity of clinical pictures and occurrences that might elicit a convulsive disorder in the alcoholics. An overview of the history of the diagnostic and classificatory attempts is made in the present paper, and distinctions between acute intoxication and withdrawal syndromes are summarized. The influences of ethanol on the cellular level and on the synaptic processes are succinctly mentioned. The authors are focused predominantly in three particularities of the alcohol-related seizures, namely the so-called alcoholic epilepsy, withdrawal seizures, and subacute encephalopathy with seizures in chronic alcoholism (SESA syndrome). Several sources are quoted, and the paper contains a brief overview on the efficacy of benzodiazepines and other antiepileptic drugs in the treatment of this variety of clinical events.



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Gender Differences in Trail Making Test Performance in a Nonclinical Sample of Adults

1Department of Psychology, Islamic Azad University, Isfahan Science and Research Branch, Isfahan, Iran

International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neurology. 2014, 2(1), 1-3
DOI: 10.12691/ijcen-2-1-1
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Elham Foroozandeh. Gender Differences in Trail Making Test Performance in a Nonclinical Sample of Adults. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neurology. 2014; 2(1):1-3. doi: 10.12691/ijcen-2-1-1.

Correspondence to: Elham  Foroozandeh, Department of Psychology, Islamic Azad University, Isfahan Science and Research Branch, Isfahan, Iran. Email:


Trail making test (TMT) is one of the neuropsychological task to evaluate mental flexibility, visual search, motor speed and executive functions in neurological patients. Attention and speed are two mental functions necessary to complete the task in a short time with the least of errors. It is suggested that age and education have respectively positive and negative relationships with the time of performance of the task by neuropsychological patients. In this study it is hypothesized that (a) there is a positive relationship between education and motor speed in normal adults (b) there is a negative relationship can be seen between age and motor speed in normal adults and (c) normal men and women have not different motor speed in part A and part B of TMT. In order to do this study, 285 normal adults (men=112) were selected and their motor speed and errors were measured in part A and B. The results showed that (a) there was a negative, but not statistically significant, relationship between education and motor speed in groups, (b) there was a negative relationship between age and motor speed in part B only in male group, and (c) there was no differences between men and women in errors of part A and B, and there was no differences between them in motor speed in part A, but there was a significant difference in time of performance of part B. The results are discussed based on evidences of harder tasks in part B of TMT and gender differences in mental functions.



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