International Journal of Celiac Disease
ISSN (Print): 2334-3427 ISSN (Online): 2334-3486 Website: http://www.sciepub.com/journal/ijcd Editor-in-chief: Samasca Gabriel
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International Journal of Celiac Disease. 2015, 3(2), 59-68
DOI: 10.12691/ijcd-3-2-1
Open AccessArticle

Primary Intestinal Malignant Lymphomas Associated With Celiakia – A Pathologist´s Review

Lukáš Plank1,

1Department of Pathology, Comenius University in Bratislava Jessenius Medical Faculty and University Hospital in Martin and Martin´s Biopsy Center, Ltd., Slovakia

Pub. Date: March 16, 2015

Cite this paper:
Lukáš Plank. Primary Intestinal Malignant Lymphomas Associated With Celiakia – A Pathologist´s Review. International Journal of Celiac Disease. 2015; 3(2):59-68. doi: 10.12691/ijcd-3-2-1

Abstract

Celiakia represents a prototype of chronic antigenic stimulation and autoimmune dysregulation leading to the accumulation of reactive cytotoxic intraepithelial lymphocytes (IEL) and small intestinal mucosal injury. These lymphocytes possess a potential of transformation, gaining an aberrant phenotype and genotype during their clonal expansion. The development of type I enteropathy –associated T-cell lymphoma (EATL) in patients with celiac disease might represent a gradual multistep transformation process starting from the increasing accumulation of IEL, and developing through the refractory celiac disease I and refractory celiac disease II, the last representing probably a lymphoma in situ. These transformational stages of the progressing celiac disease are showing increasing risk of type I EATL development, and decreasing survival of the patients. The whole process of progressing EATL lymphomagenesis resembles the hyperplasia-adenoma-dysplasia-adenocarcinoma sequence of colorectal carcinomas. Similar to the already more understood multistep developmental process from CD to type I EATL, an overt type II EATL lymphoma might represent a final step in a process of progression from IEL, representing the lymphoma precursors. However, the patients with the type II lymphoma show signs of celiakia neither clinically nor morphologically and the pathogenetical link to CD is missing. The lymphomagenesis of EATL type II seems to utilize activation of other pathways than that of type I. The recent data support the attempts to set apart the type II from the EATL category and to rename it.

Keywords:
Celiakia refractory celiac disease primary intestinal lymphoma enteropathy-associated T-cell lymphoma type I enteropathy-associated T-cell lymphoma type II monomorphic CD56+ intestinal lymphoma lymphoma in situ

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