International Journal of Celiac Disease
ISSN (Print): 2334-3427 ISSN (Online): 2334-3486 Website: Editor-in-chief: Samasca Gabriel
Open Access
Journal Browser
International Journal of Celiac Disease. 2014, 2(1), 11-16
DOI: 10.12691/ijcd-2-1-4
Open AccessArticle

Gluten Free Bread in a Diet of Celiacs

Dorota Litwinek1, Rafał Ziobro1, Halina Gambuś1 and Marek Sikora1,

1Department of Carbohydrates Technology, Faculty of Food Technology, University of Agriculture in Krakow, Poland

Pub. Date: January 19, 2014

Cite this paper:
Dorota Litwinek, Rafał Ziobro, Halina Gambuś and Marek Sikora. Gluten Free Bread in a Diet of Celiacs. International Journal of Celiac Disease. 2014; 2(1):11-16. doi: 10.12691/ijcd-2-1-4

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit


[1]  Darewicz M, Dziuba J, Minkiewicz P. Celiac disease—background, molecular, bioinformatics and analytical aspects. Food Reviews International, 24(3):311-329, 2008.
[2]  Shan L, Molberg Ø, Parrot I, Hausch F, Filiz F, Gray GM, Sollid LM, Khosla C. Structural basis for gluten intolerance in celiac sprue. Science, 297(5590):2275-2279, 2002.
[3]  Dickey W. Making oats safer for patients with coeliac disease. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol, 20(6):494-495, Jun 2008.
[4]  Fric P, Gabrovska D, Nevoral J. Celiac disease, gluten-free diet, and oats. Nutr Rev, 69(2):107-115, Feb 2011.
[5]  Kaukinen K, Collin P, Huhtala H, Mäki M. Long-term consumption of oats in adult celiac disease patients. Nutrients, 5(11):4380-4389, Nov 2013.
[6]  Arentz-Hansen H, Fleckenstein B, Molberg Ø, Scott H, Koning F, Jung, Roepstorff P, Lundin KEA, Sollid LM. The molecular basis for oat intolerance in patients with celiac disease. PLoS Med, 1(1):e1, Oct 2004.
[7]  Richman E. The safety of oats in the dietary treatment of coeliac disease. Proc Nutr Soc, 71(4):534-537, Nov 2012.
[8]  Maglio M, Mazzarella G, Barone MV, Gianfrani C, Pogna N, Gazza L, Stefanile R, Camarca A, Colicchio B, Nanayakkara M, Miele E, Iaquinto G, Giardullo N, Maurano F, Santoro P, Troncone R, Auricchio S. Immunogenicity of two oat varieties, in relation to their safety for celiac patients. Scand J Gastroenterol, 46(10):1194-1205, Oct 2011.
[9]  Comino I, Real A, de Lorenzo L, Cornell H, López-Casado MÁ, Barro F, LoriteP, Torres MI, Cebolla A, Sousa C. Diversity in oat potential immunogenicity: basis for the selection of oat varieties with no toxicity in coeliac disease. Gut, 60(7):915-922, Jul 2011.
[10]  Silano M, Pozo EP, Uberti F, Manferdelli S, Del Pinto T, Felli C, Budelli A, Vincentini O, Restani P. Diversity of oat varieties in eliciting the early inflammatory events in celiac disease. Eur J Nutr, Nov 2013.
[11]  Hall NJ, Rubin G, Charnock A. Systematic review: adherence to a gluten-free diet in adult patients with coeliac disease. Aliment Pharmacol Ther, 30(4):315-330, Aug 2009.
[12]  Kupper C. Dietary guidelines and implementation for celiac disease. Gastroenterology, 128(4 Suppl 1):S121-S127, Apr 2005.
[13]  Niewinski MM. Advances in celiac disease and gluten-free diet. J Am Diet Assoc, 108(4):661-672, Apr 2008.
[14]  Goldberg JP, Belury MA, Elam P, Finn SC, Hayes D, Lyle R, St Jeor S, Warren M, Hellwig JP. The obesity crisis: don’t blame it on the pyramid. J Am Diet Assoc, 104(7):1141-1147, Jul 2004.
[15]  Davis CA, Britten P, Myers EF. Past, present, and future of the food guide pyramid. J Am Diet Assoc, 101(8):881-885, Aug 2001.
[16]  Layman DK. Eating patterns, diet quality and energy balance: A perspective about applications and future directions for the food industry. Physiol Behav, Dec 2013.
[17]  Gray J. Reflections on dietary guidance and the status of carbohydrate on both sides of the atlantic. Nutrition Bulletin, 37(4):293-296, 2012.
[18]  Dewettinck K, Van Bockstaele F, Kühne B, Van de Walle D, Courtens TM, Gellynck X. Nutritional value of bread: Influence of processing, food interaction and consumer perception. Journal of Cereal Science, 48(2):243-257, 2008.
[19]  Gellynck X, Kühne B, Van Bockstaele F, Van de Walle D, Dewettinck K. Consumer perception of bread quality. Appetite, 53(1):16-23, Sierpie/n 2009.
[20]  Lambert JL, Le-Bail A, Zuniga R, Van-Haesendonck I, Vnzeveren E, Petit C, Rosell MC, Collar C, Curic D, Colic-Baric I, Sikora M, Ziobro R. The attitudes of european consumers toward innovation in bread; interest of the consumers toward selected quality attributes. Journal of Sensory Studies, 24(2):204-219, 2009.
[21]  O’Connor Á. Bread consumption in the uk: what are the main attitudinal factors affecting current intake and its place in a healthy diet? Nutrition Bulletin, 37(4):368-379, 2012.
[22]  Dennis M, Case S. Going gluten-free: A primer for clinicians. Practical Gastroenterology, 28(4):86-105, 2004.
[23]  Cureton P. The gluten-free diet: Can your patient afford it? Practical Gastroenterology, 31(4):75, 2007.
[24]  Gambus H, Nowotna A, Ziobro R, Gumul D, Sikora M. The effect of use of guar gum with pectin mixture in gluten-free bread. EJPAU, 4: volume4/issue2/food/art–09.html, 2001.
[25]  Sanchez HD, Osella CA, De La Torre MA. Optimization of gluten-free bread prepared from cornstarch, rice flour, and cassava starch. J. Food Sci., 67(1):416-419, 2002.
[26]  Dar YL. Advances and ongoing challenges in the development of gluten-free baked goods. Cereal Foods World, 58(6):298-304, 2013.
[27]  Arendt EK, Morrissey A, Moore MM, Dal Bello F. Gluten-free breads. Gluten-Free Cereal Products and Beverages, strony 289-319. 2008.
[28]  Scanlon MG, Zghal MC. Bread properties and crumb structure. Food Research International, 34(10):841-864, 2001.
[29]  Zghal MC, Scanlon MG, Sapirstein HD. Cellular structure of bread crumb and its influence on mechanical properties. Journal of Cereal Science, 36(2):167-176, 2002.
[30]  Gallagher E, Gormley TR, Arendt EK. Crust and crumb characteristics of gluten free breads. Journal of Food Engineering, 56(2-3):153-161, 2003.
[31]  Moore MM, Schober TJ, Dockery P, Arendt EK. Textural comparisons of gluten-free and wheat-based doughs, batters, and breads. Cereal Chemistry, 81(5):567-575, 2004.
[32]  Gallagher E, Gormley TR, Arendt EK. Recent advances in the formulation of gluten-free cereal-based products. Trends in Food Science & Technology, 15(3):143-152, 2004.
[33]  Gambuś H, Sikora M, Ziobro RŃ. The effect of composition of hydrocolloids on properties of gluten-free bread. Acta Scientiarum Polonorum: Technologia Alimentaria, 6, 2007.
[34]  Arendt EK, Renzetti S, Moore MM. Novel approaches in the design of gluten-free cereal products. Food Science and Technology, 22(1):43-46, 2008.
[35]  Schober TJ, Moreau RA, Bean SR, Boyle DL. Removal of surface lipids improves the functionality of commercial zein in viscoelastic zein-starch dough for gluten-free breadmaking. Journal of Cereal Science, 52(3):417-425, 2010.
[36]  Gujral HS, Haros M, Rosell CM. Starch hydrolyzing enzymes for retarding the staling of rice bread. Cereal Chem., 80(6):750754, 2003.
[37]  Kawamura-Konishi Y, Shoda K, Koga H, Honda Y. Improvement in gluten-free rice bread quality by protease treatment. Journal of Cereal Science, 58(1):45-50, 2013.
[38]  Matos ME, Rosell CM. Quality indicators of rice-based gluten-free bread-like products: Relationships between dough rheology and quality characteristics. Food and Bioprocess Technology, 6(9):2331-2341, 2013.
[39]  Matos ME, Sanz T, Rosell CM. Establishing the function of proteins on the rheological and quality properties of rice based gluten free muffins. Food Hydrocolloids, 35:150-158, 2014.
[40]  Phimolsiripol Y, Mukprasirt A, Schoenlechner R. Quality improvement of rice-based gluten-free bread using different dietary fibre fractions of rice bran. Journal of Cereal Science, In Press, Accepted Manuscript: 2012.
[41]  Ylimaki G, Hawrysh ZJ, Hardin RT, Thomson ABR. Response surface methodology in the development of rice flour yeast breads: sensory evaluation. J. Food Sci., 56(3):751-759, 1991.
[42]  Onyango C, Mutungi C, Unbehend G, Lindhauer MG. Rheological and textural properties of sorghum-based formulations modified with variable amounts of native or pregelatinised cassava starch. LWT - Food Science and Technology, 44(3):687-693, 2011.
[43]  Schober TJ, Messerschmidt M, Bean SR, Park S-H, Arendt EK. Gluten-free bread from sorghum: Quality differences among hybrids. Cereal Chem., 82(4):394-404, 2005.
[44]  Velázquez N, Sánchez H, Osella C, Santiago LG. Using white sorghum flour for gluten-free breadmaking. Int J Food Sci Nutr, 63(4):491-497, 2012.
[45]  Angioloni A, Collar C. Suitability of oat, millet and sorghum in breadmaking. Food and Bioprocess Technology, 6(6):1486-1493, 2013.
[46]  Taylor JRN, Schober TJ, Bean SR. Novel food and non-food uses for sorghum and millets. Journal of Cereal Science, 44(3):252–271, 2006.
[47]  Taylor JRN, Emmambux M. Gluten-free foods and beverages from millets. Gluten-Free Cereal Products and Beverages, strony 119-148. 2008.
[48]  Mäkinen OE, Zannini E, Arendt EK. Germination of oat and quinoa and evaluation of the malts as gluten free baking ingredients. Plant Foods Hum Nutr, 68(1):90-95, 2013.
[49]  Wolter A, Hager A-S, Zannini E, Arendt EK. In vitro starch digestibility and predicted glycaemic indexes of buckwheat, oat, quinoa, sorghum, teff and commercial gluten-free bread. Journal of Cereal Science, 58(3):431–436, 2013.
[50]  Gambuś H, Gambuś F, Sabat R. Próby poprawy jakości chleba bezglutenowego przez dodatek mąki z szarłatu (quality improvement of gluten – free bread by amaranthus flour). Żywność Nauka Technologia Jakość, 09(2): 99-112, 2002. in Polish, English abstract.
[51]  Sanz-Penella JM, Wronkowska M, Soral-Smietana M, Haros M. Effect of whole amaranth flour on bread properties and nutritive value. LWT - Food Science and Technology, 50(2):679-685, 2013.
[52]  Schoenlechner R, Mandala I, Kiskini A, Kostaropoulos A, Berghofer E. Effect of water, albumen and fat on the quality of gluten-free bread containing amaranth. International Journal of Food Science and Technology, 45(4):661-669, 2010.
[53]  Lin L-Y, Liu H-M, Yu Y-W, Lin S-D, Mau J-L. Quality and antioxidant property of buckwheat enhanced wheat bread. Food Chemistry, 112(4):987-991, 2009.
[54]  Mariotti M, Pagani MA, Lucisano M. The role of buckwheat and hpmc on the breadmaking properties of some commercial gluten-free bread mixtures. Food Hydrocolloids, 30(1):393-400, 2013.
[55]  Sakac M, Torbica A, Sedej I, Hadnadev M. Influence of breadmaking on antioxidant capacity of gluten free breads based on rice and buckwheat flours. Food Research International, 44(9):2806-2813, 2011.
[56]  Wronkowska M, Zielińska D, Szawara-Nowak D, Troszyńska A, Soral-Śmietana M. Antioxidative and reducing capacity, macroelements content and sensorial properties of buckwheat-enhanced gluten-free bread. International Journal of Food Science and Technology, 45(10):1993-2000, 2010.
[57]  Hüttner EK, Arendt EK. Recent advances in gluten-free baking and the current status of oats. Trends in Food Science and Technology, 21(6):303-312, 2010.
[58]  Pastuszka D, Gambuś H, Ziobro RŃ, Mickowska B, Buksa K, Sabat R, i in. Quality and nutritional value of wheat bread with a preparation of oat proteins. Journal of Microbiology, Biotechnology and Food Sciences, 1, 2012.
[59]  Anton AA, Artfield SD. Hydrocolloids in gluten-free breads: A review. Int J Food Sci Nutr, 59(1):11-23, 2008.
[60]  Houben A, Höchstötter A, Becker T. Possibilities to increase the quality in gluten-free bread production: An overview. European Food Research and Technology, 235(2):195-208, 2012.
[61]  Sciarini LS, Ribotta PD, León AE, Pérez GT. Effect of hydrocolloids on gluten-free batter properties and bread quality. International Journal of Food Science and Technology, 45(11):2306-2312, 2010.
[62]  Shittu TA, Aminu RA, Abulude EO. Functional effects of xanthan gum on composite cassava-wheat dough and bread. Food Hydrocolloids, 23(8):2254-2260, 2009.
[63]  Krupa-Kozak U, Baczek N, Rosell CM. Application of dairy proteins as technological and nutritional improvers of calcium-supplemented gluten-free bread. Nutrients, 5(11):4503-4520, 2013.
[64]  Korus J, Grzelak K, Achremowicz K, Sabat R. Influence of prebiotic additions on the quality of gluten-free bread and on the content of inulin and fructooligosaccharides. Food Science and Technology International, 12(6):489-495, 2006.
[65]  Morais EC, Cruz AG, Faria JAF, Bolini HMA. Prebiotic gluten-free bread: Sensory profiling and drivers of liking. LWT - Food Science and Technology, 55(1):248-254, 2014.
[66]  Nunes MHB, Moore MM, Ryan LAM, Arendt EK. Impact of emulsifiers on the quality and rheological properties of gluten-free breads and batters. European Food Research and Technology, 228(4):633-642, 2009.
[67]  Smerdel B, Pollak L, Novotni D, Čukelj N, Benković M, Lušić D, Ćurić D. Improvement of gluten-free bread quality using transglutaminase, various extruded flours and protein isolates. Journal of Food and Nutrition Research, 51(4):242-253, 2012.
[68]  Di Cagno, De Angelis M, Auricchio S, Greco L, Clarke C, De Vincenzi M, Giovannini C, D’Archivio M, Landolfo F, Parrilli G, Minervini F, Arendt E, Gobbetti M. Sourdough bread made from wheat and nontoxic flours and started with selected lactobacilli is tolerated in celiac sprue patients. Appl Environ Microbiol, 70(2):1088-1096, Feb 2004.
[69]  Katina K, Arendt E, Liukkonen K-H, Autio K, Flander L, Poutanen K. Potential of sourdough for healthier cereal products. Trends in Food Science & Technology, 16(1-3):104-112, 2005.
[70]  Moroni AV, Dal Bello F, Arendt EK. Sourdough in gluten-free bread-making: An ancient technology to solve a novel issue? Food Microbiology, 26(7):676–684, 2009.
[71]  Novotni D, Čukelj N, Smerdel B, Bituh M, Dujmić F, Ćurić D. Glycemic index and firming kinetics of partially baked frozen gluten-free bread with sourdough. Journal of Cereal Science, 55(2):120-125, 2012.
[72]  Ternovskoy G, Kuznetsova L, Shleikin A, Martinovic A, Oreshko L. Application of sour dough in the production of gluten free bread. Acta Scientiarum Polonorum, Technologia Alimentaria, 12(4):355-358, 2013.
[73]  De La Hera E, Rosell CM, Gomez M. Effect of water content and flour particle size on gluten-free bread quality and digestibility. Food Chemistry, 151:526-531, 2014.
[74]  Murray JA, Watson T, Clearman B, Mitros F. Effect of a gluten-free diet on gastrointestinal symptoms in celiac disease. Am J Clin Nutr, 79(4):669-673, Apr 2004.
[75]  West J, Logan RFA, Card TR, Smith C, Hubbard R. Risk of vascular disease in adults with diagnosed coeliac disease: a population-based study. Aliment Pharmacol Ther, 20(1):73-79, Jul 2004.
[76]  Aurangzeb B, Leach ST, Lemberg DA, Day AS. Nutritional status of children with coeliac disease. Acta Paediatr, 99(7):1020-1025, Jul 2010.
[77]  Siró I, Kápolna E, Kápolna B, Lugasi A. Functional food. product development, marketing and consumer acceptance–a review. Appetite, 51(3):456-467, Nov 2008.
[78]  Hager A-S, Axel C, Arendt EK. Status of carbohydrates and dietary fiber in gluten-free diets. Cereal Foods World, 56(3):109-114, 2011.
[79]  Blanco CA, Ronda F, Pérez B, Pando V. Improving gluten-free bread quality by enrichment with acidic food additives. Food Chemistry, 127(3):1204-1209, 2011.
[80]  Kiskini A, Kapsokefalou M, Yanniotis S, Mandala I. Effect of iron fortification on physical and sensory quality of gluten-free bread. Food and Bioprocess Technology, 5(1):385-390, 2012.
[81]  Marco C, Rosell CM. Breadmaking performance of protein enriched, gluten-free breads. European Food Research and Technology, 227(4):1205-1213, 2008.
[82]  Miñarro B, Albanell E, Aguilar N, Guamis B, Capellas M. Effect of legume flours on baking characteristics of gluten-free bread. Journal of Cereal Science, 56(2):476-481, 2012.
[83]  Korus J, Witczak M, Ziobro R, Juszczak L. The impact of resistant starch on characteristics of gluten-free dough and bread. Food Hydrocolloids, 23(3):988-995, 2009.
[84]  Korus J, Juszczak L, Ziobro R, Witczak M, Grzelak K, Sójka M. Defatted strawberry and blackcurrant seeds as functional ingredients of gluten-free bread. Journal of Texture Studies, 43(1):29-39, 2012.
[85]  Guerrieri N. Cereal proteins. R.Y. Yada, redaktor, Proteins in Food Processing, Woodhead Publishing Series in Food Science, Technology and Nutrition, strony 176-196. CRC Press, 2004.
[86]  Ziobro R, Witczak T, Juszczak L, Korus J. Supplementation of gluten-free bread with non-gluten proteins. effect on dough rheological properties and bread characteristic. Food Hydrocolloids, 32(2):213-220, 2013.
[87]  Collar C, Bollain C, Angioloni A. Significance of microbial transglutaminase on the sensory, mechanical and crumb grain pattern of enzyme supplemented fresh pan breads. Journal of Food Engineering, 70:479-488, 2005.
[88]  Witczak M, Juszczak L, Ziobro R, Korus J. Influence of modified starches on properties of gluten-free dough and bread. part i: Rheological and thermal properties of gluten-free dough. Food Hydrocolloids, 28(2):353-360, 2012.
[89]  Witczak M, Korus J, Ziobro R, Juszczak L. The effects of maltodextrins on gluten-free dough and quality of bread. Journal of Food Engineering, 96(2):258-265, 2010.
[90]  Ziobro R, Korus J, Witczak M, Juszczak L. Influence of modified starches on properties of gluten-free dough and bread. part ii: Quality and staling of gluten-free bread. Food Hydrocolloids, 29(1):68-74, 2012.
[91]  Ziobro R, Korus J, Juszczak L, Witczak T. Influence of inulin on physical characteristics and staling rate of gluten-free bread. Journal of Food Engineering, 116(1):21-27, 2013.
[92]  Juszczak L, Witczak T, Ziobro R, Korus J, Cieślik E, Witczak M. Effect of inulin on rheological and thermal properties of gluten-free dough. Carbohydrate Polymers, 90(1):353-360, 2012.
[93]  Cummings JH, Stephen AM. Carbohydrate terminology and classification. Eur J Clin Nutr, 61 Suppl 1:S5-18, Dec 2007.
[94]  Ludwig DS. The glycemic index: physiological mechanisms relating to obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. JAMA, 287(18):2414-2423, May 2002.
[95]  Monro JA, Shaw M. Glycemic impact, glycemic glucose equivalents, glycemic index, and glycemic load: definitions, distinctions, and implications. Am J Clin Nutr, 87(1):237S-243S, Jan 2008.
[96]  Aston LM. Glycaemic index and metabolic disease risk. Proc Nutr Soc, 65(1):125-134, Feb 2006.
[97]  Blair RM, Henley EC, Tabor A. Soy foods have low glycemic and insulin response indices in normal weight subjects. Nutr J, 5:35, 2006.
[98]  Aston LM, Jackson D, Monsheimer S, Whybrow S, Handjieva-Darlenska T, Kreutzer M, Kohl A, Papadaki A, Martinez JA, Kunova V, van Baak MA, Astrup A, Saris WHM, Jebb SA, Lindroos AK. Developing a methodology for assigning glycaemic index values to foods consumed across europe. Obes Rev, 11(1):92-100, Jan 2010.
[99]  Bornet FR, Billaux MS, Messing B. Glycaemic index concept and metabolic diseases. Int J Biol Macromol, 21(1-2):207-219, Aug 1997.
[100]  Englyst KN, Vinoy S, Englyst HN, Lang V. Glycaemic index of cereal products explained by their content of rapidly and slowly available glucose. Br J Nutr, 89(3):329-340, Mar 2003.
[101]  Wolever TM, Jenkins DJ, Jenkins AL, Josse RG. The glycemic index: methodology and clinical implications. Am J Clin Nutr, 54(5):846-854, Nov 1991.
[102]  Wasan HS, Goodlad RA. Fibre-supplemented foods may damage your health. Lancet, 348(9023):319-320, Aug 1996.
[103]  Englyst KN, Englyst HN. Carbohydrate bioavailability. Br J Nutr, 94(1):1-11, Jul 2005.
[104]  Capriles VD, Arêas JAG. Effects of prebiotic inulin-type fructans on structure, quality, sensory acceptance and glycemic response of gluten-free breads. Food and Function, 4(1):104-110, 2013.
[105]  Berti C, Riso P, Monti LD, Porrini M. In vitro starch digestibility and in vivo glucose response of gluten-free foods and their gluten counterparts. Eur J Nutr, 43(4):198-204, Aug 2004.
[106]  Segura MEM, Rosell CM. Chemical composition and starch digestibility of different gluten-free breads. Plant Foods Hum Nutr, 66(3):224-230, Sep 2011.
[107]  Poutanen K, Flander L, Katina K. Sourdough and cereal fermentation in a nutritional perspective. Food Microbiol, 26(7):693-699, Oct 2009.
[108]  Saturni L, Ferretti G, Bacchetti T. The gluten-free diet: Safety and nutritional quality. Nutrients, 2(1):16-34, 2010.
[109]  Segura MEM, Rosell CM. Chemical composition and starch digestibility of different gluten-free breads. Plant Foods for Human Nutrition, 66(3):224-230, 2011.
[110]  Wild D, Robins GG, Burley VJ, Howdle PD. Evidence of high sugar intake, and low fibre and mineral intake, in the gluten-free diet. Aliment Pharmacol Ther, 32(4):573-81, Aug 2010.
[111]  Gambuś H, Gambuś F, Wrona P, Pastuszka D, Ziobro R, Nowotna A, Kopeć A, Sikora M. Enrichment of gluten-free rolls with amaranth and flaxseed increases the concentration of calcium and phosphorus in the bones of rats. Polish Journal of Food and Nutrition Sciences, 59(4):349-355, 2009.
[112]  Singh J, Whelan K. Limited availability and higher cost of gluten-free foods. J Hum Nutr Diet, 24(5):479-486, 2011.