International Journal of Celiac Disease
ISSN (Print): 2334-3427 ISSN (Online): 2334-3486 Website: Editor-in-chief: Samasca Gabriel
Open Access
Journal Browser
International Journal of Celiac Disease. 2014, 2(1), 4-5
DOI: 10.12691/ijcd-2-1-2
Open AccessEditorial

Deciphering the Different Types of Refractory Celiac Disease

Georgia Malamut1, 2, , Nadine Cerf-Bensussan1, 3 and Christophe Cellier1, 2

1Université Paris Descartes-Sorbonne Paris Centre

2Gastroenterology department, Hôpital Européen Georges Pompidou APHP, Paris;Inserm U989, Hôpital Européen Georges Pompidou APHP Paris, France

3Inserm U989, Hôpital Européen Georges Pompidou APHP Paris, France

Pub. Date: January 06, 2013

Cite this paper:
Georgia Malamut, Nadine Cerf-Bensussan and Christophe Cellier. Deciphering the Different Types of Refractory Celiac Disease. International Journal of Celiac Disease. 2014; 2(1):4-5. doi: 10.12691/ijcd-2-1-2

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit


[1]  Cellier C, Patey N, Mauvieux L, et al. Abnormal intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes in refractory sprue. Gastroenterology 1998; 114: 471-81.
[2]  Cellier C, Delabesse E, Helmer C, et al. Refractory sprue, coeliac disease, and enteropathy-associated T-cell lymphoma. French Coeliac Disease Study Group. Lancet 2000; 356: 203-8.
[3]  Al-Toma A, Verbeek WH, Hadithi M, et al. Survival in Refractory Coeliac Disease and Enteropathy associated T cell Lymphoma: Retrospective evaluation of single centre experience. Gut 2007; 56: 1373-8.
[4]  Malamut G, Afchain P, Verkarre V, et al. Presentation and long-term follow-up of refractory celiac disease: comparison of type I with type II. Gastroenterology 2009; 136: 81-90.
[5]  Daum S, Wahnschaffe U, Glasenapp R, et al. Capsule endoscopy in refractory celiac disease. Endoscopy 2007; 39: 455-8.
[6]  Barret M, Malamut G, Rahmi G, et al. Diagnostic yield of capsule endoscopy in refractory celiac disease. Am J Gastroenterol 2012; 107: 1546-53.
[7]  Malamut G, Verkarre V, Suarez F, et al. The enteropathy associated with common variable immunodeficiency: the delineated frontiers with celiac disease. The American journal of gastroenterology 2010; 105: 2262-75.
[8]  Green PH, Cellier C. Celiac disease. The New England journal of medicine 2007; 357: 1731-43.
[9]  Malamut G, Meresse B, Kaltenbach S, et al. Small Intestinal CD4+ T-cell Lymphoma is a Heterogenous Entity with Common Pathology Features. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2013. Clin Dec 3. [Epub ahead of print].
[10]  Malamut G, Meresse B, Verkarre V, et al. Large granular lymphocytic leukemia: a treatable form of refractory celiac disease. Gastroenterology 2012;143:1470-2.
[11]  West J. Celiac disease and its complications: a time traveller's perspective. Gastroenterology 2009; 136: 32-4.
[12]  Roshan B, Leffler DA, Jamma S, et al. The incidence and clinical spectrum of refractory celiac disease in a north american referral center. The American journal of gastroenterology 2011; 106: 923-8.
[13]  Goerres MS, Meijer JW, Wahab PJ, et al. Azathioprine and prednisone combination therapy in refractory coeliac disease. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2003; 18: 487-94.
[14]  Dray X, Joly F, Lavergne-Slove A, et al. A severe but reversible refractory sprue. Gut 2006; 55: 1210-1.
[15]  Al-Toma A, Goerres MS, Meijer JW, et al. Cladribine therapy in refractory celiac disease with aberrant T cells. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2006; 4: 1322-7.
[16]  Al-Toma A, Visser OJ, van Roessel HM, et al. Autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in refractory celiac disease with aberrant T-cells. Blood. 2007; 109(5): 2243-9.
[17]  Tack GJ, Wondergem MJ, Al-Toma A, et al. Auto-SCT in refractory celiac disease type II patients unresponsive to cladribine therapy. Bone marrow transplantation; 46: 840-6.
[18]  Mention JJ, Ben Ahmed M, Begue B, et al. Interleukin 15: a key to disrupted intraepithelial lymphocyte homeostasis and lymphomagenesis in celiac disease. Gastroenterology 2003; 125: 730-45.
[19]  Malamut G, El Machhour R, Montcuquet N, et al. IL-15 triggers an antiapoptotic pathway in human intraepithelial lymphocytes that is a potential new target in celiac disease-associated inflammation and lymphomagenesis. The Journal of clinical investigation 2010; 120: 2131-43.
[20]  Chen J, Petrus M, Bamford R, et al. Increased serum soluble interleukin-15 receptor alpha (sIL-15Ralpha) levels in T-cell large granular lymphocyte leukemia. Blood. 2012 Jan 5; 119(1): 137-43.