ISSN (Print): 2328-7241

ISSN (Online): 2328-7233


Editor-in-chief: Mohsen Saeedi, Hyo Choi

Content: Volume 2, Issue 1


Distribution of Some Atmospheric Heavy Metals in Lichen and Moss Samples Collected from Eket and Ibeno Local Government Areas of Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria

1Faculty of Natural and Applied Sciences, Akwa Ibom State University, P.M.B., Uyo, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria

2Lancaster Environment Centre, Lancaster University, Lancaster, LA1 4YQ, United Kingdom

3Department of Chemistry, University of Uyo, P.M.B., Uyo, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria

American Journal of Environmental Protection. 2014, 2(1), 22-31
DOI: 10.12691/env-2-1-5
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Aniefiok E. Ite, Imaobong I. Udousoro, Udo J. Ibok. Distribution of Some Atmospheric Heavy Metals in Lichen and Moss Samples Collected from Eket and Ibeno Local Government Areas of Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. American Journal of Environmental Protection. 2014; 2(1):22-31. doi: 10.12691/env-2-1-5.

Correspondence to: Aniefiok  E. Ite, Faculty of Natural and Applied Sciences, Akwa Ibom State University, P.M.B., Uyo, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. Email:


The atmospheric deposition of some heavy metals was investigated using lichen (Parmelia caperata) and moss (Polytrichum juniperinum, Calymperes erosum and Racopilum africanum) samples collected from two oil–producing host communities viz Eket and Ibeno Local Government Areas of Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. Lichen and moss samples were analysed using atomic absorption spectrometry equipped with flame and graphite furnace after decomposition using acid digestion technique. The concentrations of heavy metals in lichen and moss samples ranged from 0.001 – 0.092 μg g−1 for cadmium (Cd); 0.004 – 8.793 μg g−1 for chromium (Cr); 0.989 – 1.950 μg g−1 for cobalt (Co); 2.350 – 110.760 μg g−1 for copper (Cu); 10.530 – 153.320 μg g−1 for manganese (Mn); 1.425 – 21.730 μg g−1 for nickel (Ni); 0.001 – 17.380 μg g−1 for lead (Pb), and 23.530 – 130.600 μg g−1 for zinc (Zn). The statistical significance of correlations between Cu–Pb, Cu–Zn, Pb–Ni and Mn–Zn concentrations confirmed anthropogenic sources mainly due to emissions from vehicular traffic, fossil fuel combustion, solid waste disposal and other local anthropogenic activities. In a direct comparison, some of the target heavy metals such as Cd, Cr, Mn, Ni and Zn were accumulated at higher concentrations in moss samples compared to lichen from the same sampling site. The results obtained reveal important contributions towards understanding of heavy metal deposition patterns and provide baseline data that can be used for potential identification of areas at risk from atmospheric heavy metals contamination in the region. The use of epiphytic lichens and mosses provides a cost–effective approach for monitoring regional atmospheric heavy metal contamination and may be effectively used in large scale air pollution monitoring programmer.



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Synthesis and Characterization of Zeolitic Material Derived from Sugarcane Straw Ash

1Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares, IPEN–CNEN/SP, São Paulo ,Brasil

2Centro de Pós-Graduação “Oswaldo Cruz”, São Paulo-SP– Brasil

American Journal of Environmental Protection. 2014, 2(1), 16-21
DOI: 10.12691/env-2-1-4
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Denise A. Fungaro, Thais V. S. Reis, Marco Antonio Logli, Nara A. Oliveira. Synthesis and Characterization of Zeolitic Material Derived from Sugarcane Straw Ash. American Journal of Environmental Protection. 2014; 2(1):16-21. doi: 10.12691/env-2-1-4.

Correspondence to: Denise  A. Fungaro, Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares, IPEN–CNEN/SP, São Paulo ,Brasil. Email:


Sugarcane straw ash (SCSA), an agricultural waste of sugar industry with disposal problems, was utilized as a source for the synthesis of zeolitic material. Zeolitic material was synthesized by alkali fusion followed by hydrothermal treatment. The effect of crystallization time was studied and the conditions optimized. The materials were characterized by XRD, XRF, SEM, FT-IR, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area techniques, particle size analyzer, TG /DSC and nitrogen physisorption. The presence of zeolite NaP1 in adsorbent confirms successful conversion of native SCSA into zeolitic material. The physico-chemical properties of SCSA and zeolitic material were compared. The particle size distribution of zeolitic material was in the range of 0.796 – 399 µm and nitrogen adsorption indicated a surface area around 350 m2 g-1. Zeolitic material from sugarcane straw ash was examined by removal of Crystal violet from aqueous solution.



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LDHs as Adsorbents of Phenol and Their Environmental Applications

1Azov Sea State Technical University, Mariupol, Ukraine

2SASOL Germany GmbH

American Journal of Environmental Protection. 2014, 2(1), 11-15
DOI: 10.12691/env-2-1-3
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Butenko E., Malyshev A., Kapustin A.. LDHs as Adsorbents of Phenol and Their Environmental Applications. American Journal of Environmental Protection. 2014; 2(1):11-15. doi: 10.12691/env-2-1-3.

Correspondence to: Butenko  E., Azov Sea State Technical University, Mariupol, Ukraine. Email:


Developed a method of synthesis of layered double hydroxides (LDH) of different composition. The investigations the processes of adsorption of phenols on LDH variable composition. Were designed kinetic parameters the processes of adsorption of phenols.



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Environmental Health Implications of Motorcycles Emitted Gases in a Metropolitan Nigeria

1Department of Physiology, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Uyo, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria

2Department of Environmental Health, University of Uyo, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria

3Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Uyo, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria

4Ministry of Environment, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria

American Journal of Environmental Protection. 2014, 2(1), 7-10
DOI: 10.12691/env-2-1-2
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
JIMMY E. O. I., SOLOMON M. S., PETER A. I, ASUQUO’ C. Environmental Health Implications of Motorcycles Emitted Gases in a Metropolitan Nigeria. American Journal of Environmental Protection. 2014; 2(1):7-10. doi: 10.12691/env-2-1-2.

Correspondence to: JIMMY  E. O. I., Department of Physiology, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Uyo, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. Email:


A study to assess the various gases emitted by motorcycles in a metropolitan State, Uyo, in Nigeria was carried out. Two hundred commercial motorcycles the mostly available means of transport were used for the study drawn from seven motorcycle parks. The gases examined were nitrogen dioxide, sulphur dioxide, carbon monoxide, chlorine, hydrogen sulphide and ammonia. The overall collection results per motorcycle parks showed the following gases concentrations: Motor Park –A; NO2; 12.7ppm, SO2; 13ppm, CO; 1337ppm, H2S; 20.2ppm, NH4; 97ppm, Cl2; 20.3ppm, HCN; 80ppm. Motorcycle Park B-NO2; 12.1ppm, SO2, 11ppm, CO; 1508ppm, H2S; 20.4ppm, NH4; 116ppm, Cl2; 19.6ppm, HCN; 71ppm. Motorcycle: Park-C NO2; 11.7ppm, SO2; 8.7ppm, CO; 1084ppm, H2S; 14.1ppm, NH4; 48ppm, Cl2; 18.6ppm, HCN; 65ppm. D: NO2; 5.1ppm, SO2; 4.7ppm, CO; 550ppm, H2S; 18.4ppm, NH4; 48ppm, Cl2; 25.9ppm, CO; 550ppm, H2S; 18.4ppm, NH4; 48ppm, Cl2; 25.9ppm, HCN; 101ppm. Motorcycle Park E:NO2; 5.4ppm, CO; 596ppm, H2S; 4.9ppm, NH4; 48ppm, Cl2; 79ppm, HCN; 101pm. Motor Park F: NO2; 51ppm, SO2; 5.4ppm, CO; 596ppm, H2S; 4.9ppm, NH4; 48ppm, Cl2; 7.3ppm, HCN; 40ppm. Motorcycle Park G: NO2; 11.9ppm, SO2; 10.5ppm, CO; 1616ppm, H2S; 18.4ppm, NH4; 185ppm, Cl2; 25.9ppm; HCN; 101ppm. The most harmful gas; carbon monoxide was significantly high in all the parks and the general results showed an alarming degree of polluted gases emission.



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Climate Change and Community Forestry in Nepal: Local People’s Perception

1Southern University and A&M College, Baton Rouge, LA

2Tribhuvan University, Institute of Forestry Pokhara Campus, Hariyokharka, Pokhara, Nepal

3Louisiana State University Agricultural Center, Baton Rouge, LA

American Journal of Environmental Protection. 2014, 2(1), 1-6
DOI: 10.12691/env-2-1-1
Copyright © 2013 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Laxmi Timilsina-Parajuli, Yajna Timilsina, Rajan Parajuli. Climate Change and Community Forestry in Nepal: Local People’s Perception. American Journal of Environmental Protection. 2014; 2(1):1-6. doi: 10.12691/env-2-1-1.

Correspondence to: Laxmi  Timilsina-Parajuli, Southern University and A&M College, Baton Rouge, LA. Email:


Climate change is regarded as one of the most fundamental threats to sustainable livelihood and global development. There is growing a global concern in linking community-managed forests as potential climate change mitigation projects. This study was conducted to explore the local people’s perception on climate change and the role of community forestry (CF) to combat climate change impacts. Two active community forest user groups (CFUGs) from Kaski and Syangja Districts in Nepal were selected as study sites, and various participatory tools were applied to collect primary data. Although most of the respondents were unaware about the words “Climate Change” in study sites, they were quite familiar with the irregularities in rainfall season and other weather extremities. 60% of the respondents had the idea that, due to increase in precipitation, there is a frequent occurrence of erosion, floods and landslide. Around 85% of the people agreed that community forests help in stabilizing soil, reducing the natural hazards like erosion, landslide. Biogas as an alternative source of cooking energy, and changes in crops and their varieties are the common adaptation measures that local people start practicing in both CFUGs in Nepal.



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