American Journal of Environmental Protection
ISSN (Print): 2328-7241 ISSN (Online): 2328-7233 Website: http://www.sciepub.com/journal/env Editor-in-chief: Mohsen Saeedi, Hyo Choi
Open Access
Journal Browser
Go
American Journal of Environmental Protection. 2018, 6(2), 43-49
DOI: 10.12691/env-6-2-3
Open AccessArticle

Ecological and Botanical Diversity in Haloxylon Persicum Community at Al-Qassim Region in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

Suliman Alghanem1,

1Department of Biology, College of Science, Tabuk University, Tabuk, Saudi Arabia

Pub. Date: May 12, 2018

Cite this paper:
Suliman Alghanem. Ecological and Botanical Diversity in Haloxylon Persicum Community at Al-Qassim Region in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. American Journal of Environmental Protection. 2018; 6(2):43-49. doi: 10.12691/env-6-2-3

Abstract

Haloxylon persicum is a vital species in desert environment. Not only does it play a role in stabilizing sand dunes, but also conserves soil and water and reduces the rate of desertification. However, the fact that the plant species is endangered poses serious consequences. Haloxylon persicum is native to northwestern China, Russia and the Middle East and can withstand extreme drought. This study was conducted in the Al-Qassim region of Saudi Arabia and the research areas were selected based on how they represent the ecological and botanical diversity of the H. persicum species. The researcher chose nine sites from the three areas. The researcher estimated the vegetation parameters like the species coverage, density and frequency. Moreover, soil analysis was also conducted in all the three selected areas of research. Physical tests to ascertain the soil types were conducted to find the electrical conductivity (EC) Mmoh / cm, pH, total dissolved salts (TDS) as parts per million (ppm), Sodium Ions, Potassium, and soil texture. The results show that soil factors play an important role in the survival and distribution of H. persicum species starting with the emergence as well as establishment of the seedlings. The researcher concludes that to protect the H. persicum community, it is important to stop overgrazing the plants and using it as the main source of wood for charcoal. It is critical that the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and other nations in which H. persicum exists protect the species because of the role it plays to the desert topography.

Keywords:
Haloxylon persicum diversity soil analysis reserve

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

References:

[1]  Arabzadeh, N., 2012. H aloxylon persicum and H aloxylon aphyllum. Asian Journal of Plant Sciences, 11(1), pp. 44-51.
 
[2]  CHANG, J., PAN, C.D. and SHI, R.F., 2006. Analysis on Dominant Species Distribution Patterns and Relation of Ass. Haloxylon persicum+ H. ammodendron [J]. Journal of Xinjiang Agricultural University, 2, p. 006.
 
[3]  Al-Khalifah, N.S. and Shanavaskhan, A.E., 2007. On the distribution, status and phenology of Ghada (Haloxylon, persicum Bunge) in the Arabian Peninsula. Tropical Ecology, 48(1), pp. 51-60.
 
[4]  Xu, G., Yu, D., Xie, J., Tang, L. and Li, Y., 2014. What makes Haloxylon persicum grow on sand dunes while H. ammodendron grows on interdune lowlands: a proof from reciprocal transplant experiments. Journal of Arid Land, 6(5), pp. 581-591.
 
[5]  Arabzadeh, N., 2011. A study on the impact of drought stress on changes of free proline in two species of Haloxylon persicum and Haloxylon aphyllum. Journal of Plant Sciences, 6(5), p. 190.
 
[6]  Liu, G.J., Zhang, X.M., Li, J.G., Fan, D.D., Deng, C.Z., Hou, J.G. and Xin, R.M., 2010. Effects of water supply and sand burial on seed germination and seedling emergence of Haloxylon ammodendron and Haloxylon Persicum. Journal of Desert Research, 30(5), pp. 1085-1091.
 
[7]  Song, J., Feng, G.U., Tian, C. and Zhang, F., 2005. Strategies for adaptation of Suaeda physophora, Haloxylon ammodendron and Haloxylon persicum to a saline environment during seed-germination stage. Annals of Botany, 96(3), pp. 399-405.
 
[8]  Li, C., Li, Y., Ma, J., Fan, L. and Wang, Q., 2010. Spatial heterogeneity of soil chemical properties between Haloxylon persicum and Haloxylon ammodendron populations. Journal of Arid Land, 2(4), pp. 257-265.
 
[9]  WEI, Y. and YIN, L.K., 2005. 2, 3, YAN Cheng 2, 3 (1 College of Forestry, Xinjiang Agricultural University, Urumqi 830052, China; 2 Xinjiang Institute of Ecology and Geography, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Urumqi 830011, China; 3 Turpan Eremophyte Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Turpan 835008, Xinjiang, China); Study on the Flowering and Pollination Characteristics of Haloxylon persicum [J]. Arid Zone Research, 1.
 
[10]  Song, J., Feng, G., Tian, C.Y. and Zhang, F.S., 2006. Osmotic adjustment traits of Suaeda physophora, Haloxylon ammodendron and Haloxylon persicum in field or controlled conditions. Plant Science, 170(1), pp. 113-119.
 
[11]  Zohary, M., 1940. Geobotanical analysis of the Syrian desert. Palestine Journal of Botany (Jerusalem Series), 2, pp. 46-96.
 
[12]  Zohary, M., 1945. Outline of the vegetation in Wadi Araba. The journal of ecology, pp. 204-213.
 
[13]  Soltani, A., 2011. Seed germination response of Haloxylon persicum (Chenopodiaceae) to different hydrothermal conditions and sand burial depths. Caspian Journal of Environmental Sciences, 9(2), pp. 211-221.
 
[14]  Edgell, H.S., 2006. Arabian deserts: nature, origin and evolution. Springer Science & Business Media.
 
[15]  Song, J., Fan, H., Zhao, Y., Jia, Y., Du, X. and Wang, B., 2008. Effect of salinity on germination, seedling emergence, seedling growth and ion accumulation of a euhalophyte Suaeda salsa in an intertidal zone and on saline inland. Aquatic Botany, 88(4), pp. 331-337.
 
[16]  Thevs, N., Wucherer, W. and Buras, A., 2013. Spatial distribution and carbon stock of the Saxaul vegetation of the winter-cold deserts of Middle Asia. Journal of arid environments, 90, pp. 29-35.
 
[17]  Wang, Y.T. and Tang, L.S., 2009. Responses of different life-form plants in Garbantunggut Desert to small rainfall events. Chin J Ecol, 28, pp. 1028-1034.
 
[18]  Alimaev, I.I., Kerven, C., Torekhanov, A., Behnke, R., Smailov, K., Yurchenko, V., Sisatov, Z. and Shanbaev, K., 2008. The impact of livestock grazing on soils and vegetation around settlements in Southeast Kazakhstan. In The Socio-Economic Causes and Consequences of Desertification in Central Asia (pp. 81-112). Springer Netherlands.
 
[19]  Dai, Y., Zheng, X.J., Tang, L.S. and Li, Y., 2015. Stable oxygen isotopes reveal distinct water use patterns of two Haloxylon species in the Gurbantonggut Desert. Plant and Soil, 389(1-2), pp. 73-87.
 
[20]  Arabzadeh, N., 2009. The examination of dryness induction effect in growth, some of physiological relations (parameters of water relations), physiological changes and increasing of drought tolerance range in Haloxylon persicum and H. aphyllum (Doctoral dissertation, Ph. D. Thesis, Department of Biology Sciences, Teacher Training (Tarbiyat Moallem) University of Tehran, Iran).
 
[21]  Shenbrot, G.I., Krasnov, B. and Rogovin, K.A., 2012. Spatial ecology of desert rodent communities. Springer Science & Business Media.
 
[22]  Youssef, A. and Al-Fredan, M.A., 2008. Community composition of major vegetations in the coastal area of Al-Uqair, Saudi Arabia in response to ecological variations. J. Biol. Sci, 8(4), pp. 713-721.
 
[23]  Zhang, P., Dong, Y., Wei, Y. and Hu, C., 2005. Analysis of genetic diversity of Haloxylon persicum (Chenopodiaceae) in Xinjiang by ISSR. Acta Botanica Yunnanica, 28(4), pp. 359-362.
 
[24]  Suo, Z., Jia, Z., Lu, Q., Pan, B., Jin, X., Xu, G., Peng, X., Sun, H. and Tao, Y., 2012. Distinguishing Haloxylon persicum and H. ammodendron (Haloxylon Bunge, Amaranthaceae) using DNA Marker. AASRI Procedia, 1, pp. 305-310.
 
[25]  Wang, X., Wang, T., Jiang, J. and Zhao, C., 2005. On the sand surface stability in the southern part of Gurbantünggüt Desert. Science in China Series D: Earth Sciences, 48(6), pp.778-785.
 
[26]  Anvari, M., Mehdikhani, H., Shahriari, A.R. and Nouri, G.R., 2009. Effect of salinity stress on 7 species of range plants in germination stage. Iranian Journal of Range and Desert Research, 16(2), pp. 262-273.
 
[27]  Xiao, R., Qiang, W. and Ningyi, X., 2005. Physio-ecological response of Haloxylon persicum photosynthetic shoots to drought stress. Scientia Silvae Sinicae, 41(5), p. 28.
 
[28]  Ya, L., Yinghua, Z., Jihe, W., Quanlin, M. and Xiaoqin, Z., 2007. The Influence of Different Salt Stress on Seed Germination of Haloxylon ammodendron [J]. Chinese Agricultural Science Bulletin, 9, p. 065.
 
[29]  Zhang, S., Song, J., Wang, H. and Feng, G., 2010. Effect of salinity on seed germination, ion content and photosynthesis of cotyledons in halophytes or xerophyte growing in Central Asia. Journal of Plant Ecology, 3(4), pp. 259-267.
 
[30]  Hamadeh SH (2005) Feeding calendar and grazing survey and development of rangeland management options. UNDP/GEF Conservation and sustainable use of dryland agrobiodiversity of the Near East-Lebanese component. Annexes 11-17: 11-30.
 
[31]  Mandaville, J.P. 1986. Plant life in the Rub' al-Khali (Empty Quarter) South Central Arabia. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Edinburgh. 89B: 147-157.
 
[32]  Tobe K, Li XM, Omasa K. 2000. Effects of sodium chloride on seed germination and growth of two Chinese desert shrubs, Haloxylon ammodendron and H. persicum (Chenopodiaceae). Australian Journal of Botany 48: 455-460.
 
[33]  Kent, M. and P. Coker, 1992. Vegetation description and analysis, a practical approach, CRC Press/Bellhaven, London.
 
[34]  Magurran, A. E. (2003). Measuring Biological Diversity. Wiley-Blackwell, London, 260pp.
 
[35]  Peverill, K.I., L.A. Sparrow, and D.J. Reuter. 1999. Soil Analysis: An Interpretation Manual. ASPAC, CSIRO Publishing, Victoria, Australia.
 
[36]  Poot P, Lambers H. 2003. Are trade-offs in allocation pattern and root morphology related to species abundance? A congeneric comparisonbetween rare and common species in the South-Western Australian Flora. Journal of Ecology, 91: 58-67.