American Journal of Environmental Protection
ISSN (Print): 2328-7241 ISSN (Online): 2328-7233 Website: Editor-in-chief: Mohsen Saeedi, Hyo Choi
Open Access
Journal Browser
American Journal of Environmental Protection. 2018, 6(2), 35-38
DOI: 10.12691/env-6-2-1
Open AccessArticle

Synthesis and Physicochemical Study of Methyl Ester from Black and Castor Seed Oil Admixture

Bello Y. Makama1, , Olede Wilson2 and Jimbo H. Claver1

1Department of Science and Mathematics, American University of Afghanistan, Darulaman Road, Kabul, Afghanistan

2Department of Kano University of Science and Technology, Kano State, Nigeria

Pub. Date: April 04, 2018

Cite this paper:
Bello Y. Makama, Olede Wilson and Jimbo H. Claver. Synthesis and Physicochemical Study of Methyl Ester from Black and Castor Seed Oil Admixture. American Journal of Environmental Protection. 2018; 6(2):35-38. doi: 10.12691/env-6-2-1


There is increasing effort in biodiesel production (fatty acid methyl ester) because of the depleting fossil fuel resources as well as similarity in properties when compared to those of diesel fuels. Diesel engines operated on biodiesel have lower emissions of carbon monoxide, unburned hydrocarbons and air toxics than those operated on petroleum-based diesel fuel. Herein we reported the optimization of Black and Castor oils methyl esters production via KOH catalyzed transesterification under various superintended conditions. The optimum yield, temperature, catalyst concentration and reaction time found to be 97%, 60°C, 1.0% (wt of crude black/castor oil) and 45 minutes respectively. A number of the fuel properties (viscosity, specific gravity and flash point) were measured according to standard methods, and were found to conform to international standards.

methyl ester black seed oil castor oil physicochemical parameters statistics

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit


[1]  Yamada, T., Claver, J. H., Ishii, S., Nishiyama, M., Hong, K., & Sakumura, Y. (2011). Identification of a Molecular System that Regulates Growth Cone Membrane Potential During Growth Cone Guidance . BMC NEUROSCIENCE , 12(Suppl 1), 28.
[2]  A, S., Fragioudakis, K., Teas, C., Zannikos, F., Stournas, S., & Lois, E. (1999). Effect of Biodiesel Edition to Diesel fuel on Engine Performance and Emmissions . Journal Propul Power, 15(2), 224-231.
[3]  Claver, J. H., & Craven, M. (2012). Modeling Simulation and Analysis of Noise in Biological Systems. Journal of Control and Application , 781.
[4]  G, K., Matheaus , A. C., & Ryan, T. W. (2003). Ctane Numbers of Branched and Straight-Chain Fatty Esters Determined in an Ignition Quality Tester, Fuel. 82, 971-975.
[5]  H, N., Harkey, D., & Medikonduru, V. (1998). Continous Process for the Conversion of Vegitable Oils into Methyl Esters of Fatty Acids. Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society , 75, 1775-1783.
[6]  Knothe, G., Van, G., Krahl, J., & J, H. (2005). The biodiesel handbook. AOCS Press, Champagin, III .
[7]  M, E. J., Gonzalez, J. F., Rodriguez, J. J., & Tejedor, A. (2002). Biodiesel Fuels from Vegetable Oils: Transesterification of Cynara Cardunculus L. Oils with Ethanol, Energy Fuels. 16, 443-450.
[8]  Makama, B. Y. (2012). Effect of Temperature on the Transesterification of Cod Liver Oil. Research Journal Chemistry Science , 2(7), 82-84.
[9]  Makama, B. Y. (2011). Transesterification Castor Oil and Palm Oil in Admixture. International Journal of Chemical Science and Technology , 1(4), 116-120.
[10]  Makama, B. Y., Okoro, L. N., Belaboh, S. V., & Edoye, N. R. (2011). Synthesis, Calorimetric and Viscometric Study of Groundnut Oil Biodiesel and Blends. Research Journal Chemistry Science , 1(3).
[11]  Mittelbach, M., & Remschmidt, C. (2006). Biodiesel: the comprehensive handbook. M. Mittelbach .
[12]  P, D. M., Cruz, F., Palomar, J. M., & Lopez, F. J. (2006). An Approach to the Economics of two Vegetable Oil-Based Biofuels in Spain, Renewable Energy. 31, 1231-1237.