American Journal of Environmental Protection
ISSN (Print): 2328-7241 ISSN (Online): 2328-7233 Website: Editor-in-chief: Mohsen Saeedi, Hyo Choi
Open Access
Journal Browser
American Journal of Environmental Protection. 2016, 4(1), 7-20
DOI: 10.12691/env-4-1-2
Open AccessArticle

Adsorption of Chromium Ion from Industrial Effluent Using Activated Carbon Derived from Plantain (Musa paradisiaca) Wastes

A.T. Adeolu1, , O.T. Okareh2 and A.O Dada3

1Department of Environmental Health Sciences, School of Allied Health and Environmental Science, Kwara State University, Malete, Kwara State, Nigeria

2Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Faculty of Public Health, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria

3School of Environmental Health Studies, College of Health Sciences and Technology, Ijero-Ekiti, Ekiti State, Nigeria

Pub. Date: April 20, 2016

Cite this paper:
A.T. Adeolu, O.T. Okareh and A.O Dada. Adsorption of Chromium Ion from Industrial Effluent Using Activated Carbon Derived from Plantain (Musa paradisiaca) Wastes. American Journal of Environmental Protection. 2016; 4(1):7-20. doi: 10.12691/env-4-1-2


Plantain (Musa paradisiaca) wastes are readily available in Nigeria and if not properly managed, they constitute nuisance to the environment. They could be used, however to produce resource materials, such as activated carbon that are of public health importance. Therefore, this study assessed the use of plantain wastes in the bio-sorption of chromium from battery recycling effluent. Plantain wastes were collected from a plantation, sun-dried and ground. These were then carbonized and activated using phosphoric acid at high temperature. Samples of effluent from Ogunpa River were subjected to physico-chemical (pH, conductivity, Total Dissolved Solid (TDS) and Chromium (Cr)) analyses, using standard methods. Batch experiment studies were used in determining the adsorption isotherms of the adsorbents at varied effects of pH (2 to 12) and adsorbent doses (0.1 to 2.0g) with treatments by plantain prepared activated carbons. Data was analysed using descriptive statistics, paired t-test and ANOVA at 5% level of significance. Means of pH, conductivity, TDS and Cr+6 of the effluent sample were: 2.0 ± 0.2, 2164.7 ± 0.6 µs/cm, 895 ± 0.00 mg/l and 13.5 ± 0.0 mg/l respectively. The highest quantities (68.02%) of Cr were removed at pH 10 while the optimum adsorbent dose (2.0g) removed 68.91% of Cr. The adsorbents showed satisfactory fits of adsorption to Langmuir and Freundlich models. Adsorbents had capacity for the uptake of chromium from effluent generated from battery recycling plant with plantain peel activated carbon having the highest adsorption capacity. Conversion and treatment of effluent with plantain wastes should be encouraged in battery recycling plant, to reduce its menace in the environment and promote effective waste management.

chromium removal battery recycling effluent Musa paradisiaca Langmuir model freundlich model

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit


[1]  Abdus-Salam, N. and Adekola, FA. (2005). “The Influence of pH and Adsorbent Concentration on Adsorption of Lead and Zinc on a Natural Goethite”, AJST. 6, 55-66.
[2]  Adebowale O, Kayode, Iyayi E. Unuabonah, Bamidele I. Olu-Owolabi. (2009). The effect of some operating variables on the adsorption of lead and cadmium ions on kaolinite clay. Journal of Hazardous Materials B134:130-139.
[3]  Ahmedna M, Marshall WE. and Rao RM. (2000). Granular activated carbons from agricultural by–products: preparation properties and application in cane sugar refining, Bulletin of Louisana state University Agricultural centre, 54.
[4]  American Public Health Association, America (1998). Standard method for the examination of water and wastewater (14th edn). Jointly published by the American Public Health Association, America Water Works Association and Water Pollution Control Federation, Washington, DC. 68-165.
[5]  Badmus, MAO, Audu, TOK and Anyata, BU. (2007). Removal of lead ion from Industrial Wastewater by Activated carbon produced from Periwinkle Shells. Turkish J. Eng. Env. Sci, 31:251-263.
[6]  Braukmann, BM. (1990). Industrial solution amenable to biosorption. In Biosorption (Edited by Volusky B), CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.
[7]  DWAF (1996). South Africa water quality Guidelines. 7: Aquatic Ecosystems (1st Edn) Department of water Affairs and forestry, Pretoria.
[8]  Ekpete OA. Horsfall M. and Tarawou T. (2010). Potentials of fluted and commercial activated carbons for phenol removal in aqueous solution, ARPN, Journal of Engineering and applied sciences, 5, 39-47.
[9]  Gimba, C. and Musa, I. 2007. Preparation of activated carbon from agricultural waste: cyanide binding with activated carbon matrix from coconut shell, J Chem. Nigeria, 32:167-170.
[10]  Ghosh D and Bhattacharyya K (2002). Adsorption of methylene blue on kaolinite, Appl. Clay Sci. 20:295-300.
[11]  Ho, YS. Wase, DAJ. and Forster, CF. 1995. “Kinetic Studies of Competitive Heavy Metal Adsorption by Sphagnum Peat” Environmental Technology 17:71-77.
[12]  Jiang Z., Liu Y., Sun X., Tian F., Sun F., Liang C., You W., Han C. and Li C. (2003). Activated carbons chemically modified by concentrated H2SO4 for the adsorption of pollutants from wastewater and dibenzothiophene from fuel oils, Langmuir, 19, 7.
[13]  Kadirvelu, K. and Namasivayam, C. (2003). “Activated Carbon from Coconut Corpith as Metal Adsorbent: Adsorption of Cd(II) from Aqueous Solution”. Adv. Environ. Res., 7, 471-478.
[14]  Kosayothin, K. 2002. Removal of Heavy Metal in Wastewater from Water Quality Analysis Laboratory by Bagasse. [M.Sc. Thesis in Technology of Environmental Management]. Bangkok: Faculty of Graduate Studies, Mahidol University.
[15]  Low, KS., Lee, CK. and Leo, AC. (1995). “Removal of Metals from Electroplating Wastes Using Banana Pith”. Bioresource. Technol. 51, 227-231.
[16]  Marhir A, Ozkan D, Mehmet D. (2004). Removal of acid yellow 49 from aqueous solution by adsorption, Fresen, Environ. Bull 13: 1112-1121.
[17]  Marshall, WE. Wartelle, LH., Boler, D,E., Johns, MM. and Toles, CA. (1999). Enhancement of metal adsorption by soyabean hulls modified with citric acid. Bioresource Technology 69:263-268.
[18]  Nasim Ahmed Kham, Shaliza Ibrahim, Piarapakaran Subramaniam. (2004). Elimination of heavy metals from wastewater using agricultural wastes as adsorbents, Malaysian Journal of Science 23: 43-51.
[19]  Nitzsche, O. and Vereecken, H. (2002). “Modelling Sorption and Exchange Processes in Column Experiments and Large Scale Field Studies”. Mine Water and the Environment 21:15-23.
[20]  Okareh OT and Adeolu AT. (2015). Removal of Lead Ion from Industrial Effluent Using Plantain (Musa paradisiaca) Wastes, British Journal of Applied of Applied Science & Technology, 8(3): 267-276.
[21]  Okieimen FE., Okiemen CO. and Wuana RA. (2007). Preparation and characterization of activated carbon from rice husks, J. Chem. Soc., 32, 126-136.
[22]  Prahas D, Kartika Y, Indraswati N, Ismadji S (2008). Activated carbon from jackfruit peel waste by H3PO4 chemical activation: Pore structure and surface chemistry characterization, Chem. Eng. J 140: 32-42.
[23]  Reddi, LN. and Inyang, HI. (2001). Geo-Environmental Engineering Principles and Applications, Marcel Decker Inc., New York.
[24]  Samuel, DF. and Osman, MA. (1987). Adsorption Process for Water Treatment, Butterworth Publishing, London.
[25]  Speijers, GJA. (1996). Nitrate in Toxicological evaluation of certain foot additive and contaminants in food, ed, by WHO, Food Additive Series 35, Geneva, pp 325-360.
[26]  Sridhar, MKC. (2005). Industrial Environment, Safety and Pollution Control-Procedure and Methods, University of Ibadan.
[27]  Strelko J, Malik DJ. and Streat M. (2007). Characterisation of the surface of oxidized carbon adsorbents, Carbon, 40, 95.
[28]  Unuabonah EI, Olu-Owolabi BI, Adebowale KO, Ofomaja AE (2007). Adsorption of lead and cadmium ions from aqueous solutions by tripolyphosphate-impregnated kaolinite clay colloid surface. Physicochem Eng Aspect, 292: 202-211.
[29]  Unuabonah I, Emmanuel, Gilbert U. Adie, Lora O. Onah, Olalere G. Adeyemi (2009). Multistage optimization of the adsorption of methylene blue dye onto defatted Carica papaya seeds. Chemical Engineering Journal 155: 567-579.
[30]  Wong, KK. Lee, CK., Low, KS. and Haron, MJ. (2003). Removal of Cu and Pb by Tartaric Acid Modified Rice Husk. Malaysian Journal of Science 23.51:43-51.
[31]  Wang K and Xing B (2002). Adsorption and desorption of cadmium by goethite pre-treated with phosphate, Chemosphere 48:665-670.
[32]  Yabe MJS, Oliveira (2003). Heavy metals removal in industrial effluents by sequential adsorbent treatment. Adv Environ. Res. 7: 263-272.
[33]  Yurtsever M and Sengil I.A (2009). Biosorption of Pb (II) ions by modified quebracho tannin resin. J. Hazard Matter, 163: 58-64.