American Journal of Environmental Protection
ISSN (Print): 2328-7241 ISSN (Online): 2328-7233 Website: http://www.sciepub.com/journal/env Editor-in-chief: Mohsen Saeedi, Hyo Choi
Open Access
Journal Browser
Go
American Journal of Environmental Protection. 2021, 9(1), 23-28
DOI: 10.12691/env-9-1-3
Open AccessArticle

Evaluating Class B Fire Extinguishing Efficacies of Organic Nitro Compounds Based Aerosol Forming Compositions

Tribhuvan Kumar Pathak1, 2, Kumar Kaushik1, Satya Prakash Dobhal1, Vandana Sharma2, Pradeep Kumar Dixit1, Rajni Johar3, Pyar Singh Jassal2, and Raj Pal Singh1

1Centre for Fire, Explosive and Environment Safety, DRDO, Delhi, India

2Department of Chemistry, Sri Guru Tegh Bahadur Khalsa College, University of Delhi, India

3Department of Chemistry, Maitreyi College, University of Delhi, India

Pub. Date: October 18, 2021

Cite this paper:
Tribhuvan Kumar Pathak, Kumar Kaushik, Satya Prakash Dobhal, Vandana Sharma, Pradeep Kumar Dixit, Rajni Johar, Pyar Singh Jassal and Raj Pal Singh. Evaluating Class B Fire Extinguishing Efficacies of Organic Nitro Compounds Based Aerosol Forming Compositions. American Journal of Environmental Protection. 2021; 9(1):23-28. doi: 10.12691/env-9-1-3

Abstract

Every year, increasing fire accidents worldwide have directed our attention towards an effective fire suppression system. For many decades, Halons have been used as effective fire extinguishing agents. Vienna convention (1985) and Montreal protocol (1987) determined Halons as ozone-depleting agents, and subsequently, their manufacturing is banned by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Thus, against the urgent background of this elimination of Halons, aerosol-based extinguisher resulted as one of the significant Halons substitute technology. The Ozone Depletion Potential and Global Warming Potential values of aerosol extinguishing agents are nearly zero. This has provided thrust for various Universities and research institutions for undertaking numerous projects to develop aerosol-forming pyrotechnic composites for fire fighting applications. In the present work, novel fire extinguishing pyrotechnic compositions were fabricated, in which four different organic nitro compounds, 3,5-dinitrosalicylic acid, 3,5-dinitrobenzoic acid, m-nitrobenzenesulphonate and 3-nitrophthalic acid, were used as the reductant. These nitro compounds undergo rapid redox reaction with strong oxidants to produce aerosol fire extinguishing agents, extinguishing 4.57 KW of small scale n-heptane pool fires in 3 seconds. The fire extinguishing efficacy and thermal characteristics of novel compositions were evaluated against potassium nitrate and phenol formaldehyde resin-based conventional pyrotechnic composition.

Keywords:
aerosol class B fire pyrotechnic fire suppression organic nitro compounds halon alternatives

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

References:

[1]  Hoke, S.H., Herud, C, “Performance evaluation of a halogen acid gas analyzer”. Halon Opt. Tech. Work .Conf; Proc15th, 1996, 577-584. R0301092.pdf (nist.gov).
 
[2]  Zhang, X., Ismail, M.H.S., Ahmadun, F.R.B., Abdullah, N.B.H., Hee, C, “Hot aerosol fire extinguishing agents and the associated technologies: A Review”. Braz. J. Chem. Eng. 2015, 32(3), 707-724.
 
[3]  Hosseini, S.G., Pourmortazavi, S.M.., Hajimirsadeghi, S.S, “Thermal decomposition of pyrotechnic mixtures containing sucrose with either potassium chlorate or potassium perchlorate”. Combust. Flame. 2005,141, 322-326.
 
[4]  Rusin, D.L., Denisyuk, A.P., Michalev, D.B., Shepelev, J.G, “Pyrotechnical-aerosol forming fire-extinguishing composite and a method of its production”. 2004, US 6689285 B2.
 
[5]  Posson, P.L., Clark, M.L, “Flame suppressant aerosol Generate” 2012, US 8182711 B2.
 
[6]  Guo, H.B., Zhang, Z.F, “Fire-extinguishing aerosol composition for precision electric appliances” 2012, US 8231801B2.
 
[7]  Zhang, X., Ismail, M.H.S., Ahmadun, F.R.B., Abdullah, N.B.H, “Synthesis and analysis of new non-corrosive hot aerosol fire suppression agent” World Appl Sci J. 2014, 32(5), 952-963.
 
[8]  Denisyuk, A.P., Rusin, D.L., Long, N.D, “Mechanism of combustion of fire-extinguishing propellants based on potassium nitrate” Doklady Phys. Chem. 2007, 414(1), 63-66.
 
[9]  Kwon, K., Kim, Y, “Extinction effectiveness of pyrogenic condensed -aerosols extinguishing system”. Korean J. Chem. Eng. 2013, 30(12), 2254-2258.
 
[10]  Vasil’evic, D.N, “Pyrotechnical, aerosol forming composition for fire extinguishing fires and process for its preparation” 2003, EP-A-0804946.
 
[11]  Yonghua, H., “Steam hot aerosol fire-extinguishing composition and its use method and fire-extinguishing device” 2011, CN 101554520 B.
 
[12]  Hao, W.U., Zhai, T., Zheng, G., Lei, Z., Yang, Z, “Fire extinguishing composition comprising heterocyclic compounds” 2017, US0043196 A1.
 
[13]  Kibert, C., Dierdorf, D, Encapsulated Micron Aerosol Agents (EMAA). New Mexico: University of Florida; 2003, 421-435 https://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/ENCAPSULATED-MICRON-AEROSOL-AGENTS-(-EMAA-)-J..Douglas/f18286297efe790fdd6445bc06977cc71a17670b.
 
[14]  Chattaway, A., Dunster, R., Gall, R., Spring, D, The Evaluation of Non-Pyrotechnically Generated Aerosols as Fire Suppressants. Colnbrook, United Kingdom;,Fire and Safety International and Kidde Graviner Ltd; 1995. https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/611c/51f9ae3c40acadac4bc3646bc6f2c0ed1b51.pdf.
 
[15]  Sparks, P.J., Peters, J.M, “Respiratory morbidity in workers exposed to dust containing phenolic resin”. Int. Arch. Occup. Environ. Health. 1980, 45, 221-229.
 
[16]  Cohen, N., Modai, D., Khahil, A., Golik, A, “Acute resin phenol-formaldehyde intoxication. A life -threatening occupational hazard” Hum. Toxicol. 1989, 8(3), 247-250.
 
[17]  Marlene, I., Erik, Z., Magnus, B, “Occupational dermatoses in composite production” J. Occup. Env. Med. 1999, 41, 261-266.
 
[18]  Brun, E, “Expert forecast on emerging chemical risks related to occupational safety and health”, European risk observatory report, ISSN: 1830-5946, European agency for safety and health at work; 2009, pp. 52-55.
 
[19]  Groot, A.C.D., Flyvholm, M.A., Lensen, G., Torkil, M., Coenraads, P.J, “Formaldehyde releasers: relationship to formaldehyde Contact allergy to formaldehyde and inventory of formaldehyde-releasers” Contact Dermat.. 2009, 61, 63-85.
 
[20]  Ingram, W.H., McVay, T.M., Letchas, M, “Low formaldehyde emission phenol-formaldehyde resin and method for manufacture thereof” 2004, US 6706845 B2.
 
[21]  Salthammer, T., Mentese, S., Marutzky, R, “Formaldehyde in the indoor environment” Chem. Rev. 2010, 110, 2536-2572.
 
[22]  Williams, B.A., Fleming, J.W, “Suppression mechanisms of alkali metal compounds” Paper presented at: Halon Opt. .Tech. Work Conf. NIST SP 984, National Institute of Standards and Techoogy, Gaithersburg, MD, 1999. https://www.nist.gov/document-11027.
 
[23]  Agafonov, V.V., Kopylov, S.N., Sychev, A.V., Uglov, V.A., Zhyganov, D.B, “The mechanism of fire suppression by condensed aerosols” Halon Opt. Tech. Work. Conf. Proc15th, Albuquerque: 1-10, 2005.
 
[24]  Yang, J, “Fire extinguishment mechanism and influence of aerosol fire extinguishment agent” J. South. Yangt. Uni. Nat. Sci. Ed. 2009, 2(3), 303.
 
[25]  Miller, A.F., Wilkins, C.H, “Infrared spectra and characteristic frequencies of inorganic ions” Anal Chem. 1952, 24, 1253-1294.
 
[26]  Silverstein, M.R., Webster, X.F., Kiemle, D.J, Spectrometric Identification of Organic Compounds. 7th ed. John wiley & Sons, Inc; 2005.
 
[27]  Kuang, K., Chow, W.K., Ni, X., Yang, D., Zeng W., Liao, G, “Fire suppressing performance of superfine potassium bicarbonate powder” Fire Mater. 2011, 35, 353-366.
 
[28]  Hazarika, S., Mohanta, D, “Extraction and characterization of mixed phase KNO2-KNO3 nanocrystals derived from flat-leaf green spinach” Phys. Scr. 2013, 87, 1-5.
 
[29]  Lin, S.K., Mai, Y.J., Li, S.R., Shu, C.W., Wang, C.H, “Characterisation and hydrogen storage of surface- modified multiwalled carbon nanotubes for fuel cell application” J. Nanomat. 2012, 2012, 1-12.