American Journal of Environmental Protection
ISSN (Print): 2328-7241 ISSN (Online): 2328-7233 Website: Editor-in-chief: Mohsen Saeedi, Hyo Choi
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American Journal of Environmental Protection. 2020, 8(2), 43-48
DOI: 10.12691/env-8-2-2
Open AccessArticle

Livelihood Sustainability and Land Degradation in Central Pakhtunkhwa of Pakistan

Muhammad Israr1, , Saeed Ullah2 and Nafees Ahmad3

1Department of Rural Development, The University of Agriculture, Peshawar Pakistan, Pakistan

2Department of Rural Development, AMKC, Mardan The University of Agriculture, Peshawar, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan

3Department of Economics, University of Malakand, Chakdara Dir Lower, Pakistan

Pub. Date: May 31, 2020

Cite this paper:
Muhammad Israr, Saeed Ullah and Nafees Ahmad. Livelihood Sustainability and Land Degradation in Central Pakhtunkhwa of Pakistan. American Journal of Environmental Protection. 2020; 8(2):43-48. doi: 10.12691/env-8-2-2


Land Degradation (LD) is a universal problem influencing all areas of human prosperity all over the world. The aim of this research is to study the farming household livelihoods sustainability and land degradation, in Mardan district of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Pakistan. By using Slovin’s “formula”, 90 farmers were “randomly” selected through a total of 857 registered farmers. Primary data were collected through structure questionnaire face to face interview from the farming households (HH) and was analysed by using descriptive statistics and Chi-square test. It was found that as a result of the LD farmers land size (44.44%) was decreased but not significant as of the chi-value. Also decline in crop yield (42.22%) was reported. The tillage degradation of the land increased the eroadibility of soil (24.44%) and decreased its yield (36.67%) with a significant association of the perceptions of the farmers. The overgrazing has also affect on the LD by decreasing the plant density (16.67%), increased the soil compaction and trampling by cattle. The soil structure LD having also consequences for the farmer’s livelihoods like decreased the food production and increased the chances of droughts. Salinization degradation decreased the productivity of land, income and increased the water scarcity, affect the plant vegetative growth and also results low rain fall which alternatively affect the sustainability of the farmer’s livelihoods. It was concluded that LD is an enormous threat to the future sustainability and food security of the farmers. The study recommends for a long- term financial commitment and improved coordination of investments, coupled by allowing the family unit to make the right choices about their livelihoods and family planning to reduce the pressure on limited resources by fostering diversifications of income sources for the households for their future livelihoods sustainability and food security.

farming households land degradation farmer’s socio-economic conjectures

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