Content: Volume 2, Issue 5


Article

Students Motivation in Asynchronous Online Discussions with MOOC Mode

1Computer School, Yangtze University, Jingzhou, China


American Journal of Educational Research. 2014, 2(5), 325-330
DOI: 10.12691/education-2-5-13
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Qiang Yang. Students Motivation in Asynchronous Online Discussions with MOOC Mode. American Journal of Educational Research. 2014; 2(5):325-330. doi: 10.12691/education-2-5-13.

Correspondence to: Qiang  Yang, Computer School, Yangtze University, Jingzhou, China. Email: yangqiang@yangtzeu.edu.cn

Abstract

This paper investigates on MOOC, and analyzes issues in current Extension programs, addresses the attributes of MOOC for advancing Extension, and gives current MOOC programs and future directions. The findings continue to indicate that students motivation has a significant relationship with their participation in online discussion activities at time two and time three. Students perceived process, autonomy, competence, and relatedness have different levels of impact on their online discussion behavior. The motivation for participating in online discussions was self-reported three times throughout the semester. This discussion also found that students’ intrinsic motivation and their perceived value of online discussions remained at a moderate-high level over time, although the perceived value had a significant drop from the mid-point to the end of the semester.

Keywords

References

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Article

Experience-Based Learning in Nursing Teacher Education: A Historical-Cultural Research Study

1Psychiatric Nursing and Human Sciences, University of São Paulo at Ribeirao Preto College of Nursing, Ribeirao Preto, Brazil

2Maternal-Infant and Public Health, University of São Paulo at Ribeirao Preto College of Nursing, Ribeirao Preto, Brazil


American Journal of Educational Research. 2014, 2(5), 316-324
DOI: 10.12691/education-2-5-12
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Marlene Fagundes Carvalho Gonçalves, RonildoAlves dos Santos, Marta AngélicaIossi Silva, Cinira Magali Fortuna, LucianeSá de Andrade. Experience-Based Learning in Nursing Teacher Education: A Historical-Cultural Research Study. American Journal of Educational Research. 2014; 2(5):316-324. doi: 10.12691/education-2-5-12.

Correspondence to: Marlene  Fagundes Carvalho Gonçalves, Psychiatric Nursing and Human Sciences, University of São Paulo at Ribeirao Preto College of Nursing, Ribeirao Preto, Brazil. Email: mgoncalves@eerp.usp.br

Abstract

The Ribeirão Preto College of Nursing at the University of São Paulo trains nurses and nursing teachers, providing undergraduate students with tasks within different health and education context throughout their degree course. This article analyses those students' experiences outside the university via the "Health Promotion in Basic Education" course, which adopts the following pedagogical cycle: Immersion in professional practice scenarios, provisional synthesis, searching for theoretical support, new synthesis and assessment. The investigated sample consisted of 21 portfolios written by students during this course. The data were studied in light of Bardin's theories of thematic analysis. These portfolios were personal and individual productions; however, they also referred to the groups and their experience. They showed the students' construction of knowledge and competencies. The importance of such student experience appeared during the course and supported the training of professionals who are better prepared and more critical, responsible and active in developing health promotion programs in schools.

Keywords

References

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Article

Social-Emotional Perceptions of Deaf Students in Hail, Saudi Arabia

1College of Medicine, University of Hail, Po Box 2440, Hail 81451, Saudi Arabia


American Journal of Educational Research. 2014, 2(5), 304-315
DOI: 10.12691/education-2-5-11
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Maha Al-shammari, Asma Ashankyty, Najmah Al-Mowina, Nadia Al-Mutairy, Lulwah Al-shammari, Anfal al-qrnas, Susan Amin. Social-Emotional Perceptions of Deaf Students in Hail, Saudi Arabia. American Journal of Educational Research. 2014; 2(5):304-315. doi: 10.12691/education-2-5-11.

Correspondence to: Susan  Amin, College of Medicine, University of Hail, Po Box 2440, Hail 81451, Saudi Arabia. Email: s.amin@uoh.edu.sa

Abstract

Background: To date, studies of deaf student's perceptions using a multidimensional self-report instrument to measure their overall social-emotional adjustment in private educational establishments in the western world are few, especially between the ages of 15-21. In terms of Saudi Arabia studies both cross-sectional and longitudinal are few on the social-emotional function of deaf students. We chose to look at standardized surveys of students' perceptions to provide a multidimensional picture of the social- emotive function of the students who are deaf or hard of hearing (SDHH) in a university and high school in Saudi Arabia. In the following sections we (a) Describe a framework for measuring social emotive perceptions for students in Saudi Arabia. (b) Review the social emotive status of students that are deaf or hard of hearing (SDHH) by their perceptions. (c) Review the factors contributing to SDHH social-emotive status. Methods: A cross sectional study was carried out on seventy female students of ages 15-18 and 18-21 with varying degrees of sensor neural deafness. This was carried out by interviews of the students to answer our objectives. Results and Discussion: A high significant number of students surveyed in our study were happy with themselves and satisfied with their situation in the private setting both in the university and the high school. The majority of female SDHH in this study, however, perceived barriers when communicating and got embarrassed when speaking with people that did not understand them. Conclusion: This study has aided our understanding of the social-emotive factors perceived by SDHH in the private setting. The SDHH in this study had positive attitudes towards achieving their goals, making friends and their well being and this could be encouraged in the future by teachers and parents. A number of SDHH in this study did not know of the government support available to them. More workshops to educate the students on the government services available and how to receive them would aid in this.

Keywords

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Article

A Study of Chinese College Students’ English Reading Anxiety

1School of Foreign Languages, University of Jinan, Jinan City, China


American Journal of Educational Research. 2014, 2(5), 299-303
DOI: 10.12691/education-2-5-10
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Xinguang SHAO. A Study of Chinese College Students’ English Reading Anxiety. American Journal of Educational Research. 2014; 2(5):299-303. doi: 10.12691/education-2-5-10.

Correspondence to: Xinguang  SHAO, School of Foreign Languages, University of Jinan, Jinan City, China. Email: sfl_shaoxg@ujn.edu.cn

Abstract

Anxiety is one of the affective factors that have effects on Chinese college students’ English reading comprehension. The study aims to investigate some causes of Chinese college students having English reading anxiety with the help of questionnaires and interview with some subjects, which may help them find out some useful and practical strategies to overcome it. After careful analysis of the subjects’ scores, five causes are found out. They are students’ lack of cultural knowledge of English-speaking countries, lack of confidence in reading English, lack of necessary reading skills, lack of English linguistic knowledge and lack of interest in reading English. Some measures may be taken by teachers to deal with their students’ reading anxiety. They should try to motivate the students to make more efforts and help reduce their reading anxiety in order to increase their learning efficiency in English reading.

Keywords

References

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[10]  MacIntyre, P. D. Language anxiety: a review of the research for language teachers. Affect in Foreign Language and Second Language Learning: A Practical Guide to Creating a Low-anxiety Classroom Atmosphere. Ed. Young, D. J. Boston, McGraw-Hill, 1999, 24-45.
 
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Article

Wittengstein’s Language Games and Forms of Life from a Social Constructivist Point of View

1George Mason University


American Journal of Educational Research. 2014, 2(5), 291-298
DOI: 10.12691/education-2-5-9
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Ilhan M. Izmirli. Wittengstein’s Language Games and Forms of Life from a Social Constructivist Point of View. American Journal of Educational Research. 2014; 2(5):291-298. doi: 10.12691/education-2-5-9.

Correspondence to: Ilhan  M. Izmirli, George Mason University. Email: iizmirl@gmu.edu

Abstract

In this paper our main objective is to interpret the major concepts in Wittgenstein’s philosophy of mathematics, in particular, language games and forms of life, from a social constructivist point of view in an attempt to show that this philosophy is still very relevant in the way mathematics is being taught and practiced today. We start out with a brief discussion of radical constructivism followed by a rudimentary analysis of the basic tenets of social constructivism, the final blow against absolutism – the soulless landmark of mathematics as often construed by the uninitiated. We observe that, the social constructivist epistemology of mathematics reinstates mathematics, and rightfully so, as “…a branch of knowledge which is indissolubly connected with other knowledge, through the web of language” (Ernest 1999), and portrays mathematical knowledge as a process that should be considered in conjunction with its historical origins and within a social context. Consequently, like any other form of knowledge based on human opinion or judgment, mathematical knowledge has the possibility of losing its truth or necessity, as well. In the third section we discuss the main points expounded in Wittgenstein’s two books, Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus and Philosophical Investigations, as well as in his “middle period” that is characterized by such works as Philosophical Remarks, Philosophical Grammar, and Remarks on the Foundations of Mathematics. We then briefly introduce the two main concepts in Wittgenstein’s philosophy that will be used in this paper: forms of life and language games. In the fifth and final section, we emphasize the connections between social constructivism and Wittgenstein’s philosophy of mathematics. Indeed, we argue that the apparent certainty and objectivity of mathematical knowledge, to paraphrase Ernest (Ernest 1998), rest on natural language. Moreover, mathematical symbolism is a refinement and extension of written language: the rules of logic which permeate the use of natural language afford the foundation upon which the objectivity of mathematics rests. Mathematical truths arise from the definitional truths of natural language, and are acquired by social interaction. Mathematical certainty rests on socially accepted rules of discourse embedded in our forms of life, a concept introduced by Wittgenstein (Wittgenstein, 1956).We argue that the social constructivist epistemology draws on Wittgenstein’s (1956) account of mathematical certainty as based on linguistic rules of use and forms of life, and Lakatos’ (1976) account of the social negotiation of mathematical concepts, results, and theories.

Keywords

References

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Article

The Creative Analytic Paradigm and Generative Social Research within the Context of the Early-Years/Kindergarten Physical Learning Environment

1Institute of Education, University of Worcester, Worcester, England


American Journal of Educational Research. 2014, 2(5), 283-290
DOI: 10.12691/education-2-5-8
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Anthony Barnett. The Creative Analytic Paradigm and Generative Social Research within the Context of the Early-Years/Kindergarten Physical Learning Environment. American Journal of Educational Research. 2014; 2(5):283-290. doi: 10.12691/education-2-5-8.

Correspondence to: Anthony  Barnett, Institute of Education, University of Worcester, Worcester, England. Email: a.barnett@worc.ac.uk

Abstract

Innovative approaches to research methodology are a potential counterbalance to the dominance of established methods and may be more responsive to specific research aims. However, approaching research differently incurs risks associated with evaluation of quality of methods and outcomes. This article starts the process of engaging with key methodological issues to provide a foundation for developing an innovative approach. The starting point is a focus on categorisation theory related to qualitative, quantitative and mixed methods. The article focuses on superordinate, basic and subordinate categories when responding to the stretching boundaries of qualitative research. Attention is then given to the concept of research paradigm; role of research questions; approaches to data collection and analysis; and to assessing quality as some of the starting points for developing an innovative approach. The creative analytic paradigm as a basic category and generative social research as a superordinate category are introduced and exemplified with reference to the early-years/kindergarten learning environment. The article then illustrates a subordinate category research design that involves the burgeoning of experience though time in response to evocative objects from the early-years learning environment. The resulting methodology is a straightforward and manageable form of meaning based reflective practice.

Keywords

References

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Article

Pre-Service Biology Teacher Preparation in the Usa And Ukraine: Comparative Study of Professional Education Training

1Department of Chemistry and Biology, Ternopil Volodymyr Hnatiuk National Pedagogical University, Ternopil, Ukraine


American Journal of Educational Research. 2014, 2(5), 278-282
DOI: 10.12691/education-2-5-7
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
N. M. Shchur. Pre-Service Biology Teacher Preparation in the Usa And Ukraine: Comparative Study of Professional Education Training. American Journal of Educational Research. 2014; 2(5):278-282. doi: 10.12691/education-2-5-7.

Correspondence to: N.  M. Shchur, Department of Chemistry and Biology, Ternopil Volodymyr Hnatiuk National Pedagogical University, Ternopil, Ukraine. Email: natalya.schur@ukr.net

Abstract

Developing the teacher education has become popular tendency all over the world. It is caused by the fact that teacher training influence both educator effectiveness and students’ outcomes. Teacher education is treated as a lifelong learning that goes from the pre-service training to the retirement. Increasing the level of pre-service teacher education is vital for improving teacher quality and students’ achievements insofar as it develops the basic teacher competences which are necessary to accomplish teacher work correctly. In Ukraine there are a lot of challenges in pre-service teacher education that have to be dealt with. The experience of developed countries is very essential for identifying the most appropriate ways to cope with the challenges in Ukrainian systems of teacher training. In this article there have been investigated the peculiarities of pre-service biology teacher education in the USA and Ukraine. The advantages and disadvantages of Ukrainian professional education training of pre-service biology teachers and the strategies for its improvement have been determined on the basis of comparative analysis of both countries.

Keywords

References

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[5]  Klintsova, M. M., “Peculiarities of Teacher Training at Classical University”. The problems of modern teacher education, 8, Yalta, 174-179, 2005.
 
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[8]  Savchuk, V., “Perspectives of the In-service Teacher Education of Ukraine with respect of European integration: Philosophy Aspect”, Modern Pedagogical View, 1, 20-22, 2010.
 
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Article

Difference in Self-reported and Students-rated Teacher Effectiveness among Medical and Engineering Faculty Members: Need for Direct Informal Feedback

1Department of Management Studies, Sikkim Manipal Institute of Technology, Gangtok, India


American Journal of Educational Research. 2014, 2(5), 272-277
DOI: 10.12691/education-2-5-6
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Indoo Singh, Ajeya Jha. Difference in Self-reported and Students-rated Teacher Effectiveness among Medical and Engineering Faculty Members: Need for Direct Informal Feedback. American Journal of Educational Research. 2014; 2(5):272-277. doi: 10.12691/education-2-5-6.

Correspondence to: Indoo  Singh, Department of Management Studies, Sikkim Manipal Institute of Technology, Gangtok, India. Email: smit.indoo@gmail.com

Abstract

The main objective of this research was to find the difference between self-reported and students-rated teacher effectiveness among the faculty members of medical and engineering colleges as these two courses are highly competitive and academically very demanding. Self-reported teacher effectiveness of 310 faculty members (Medical 137 and Engineering 173; Males 180 and Females 130) from 7 private colleges (3 medical and 4 engineering) from Uttar Pradesh, India was obtained using Teacher Effectiveness Scale (TES, 2010) and their teacher ratings from 350 students of the respective colleges were acquired using Teacher Rating Scale (TRS, 2003). A significant correlation was revealed between self-reported and students-rated teacher effectiveness but the self perception of teacher effectiveness by the faculty members was found to be much higher than what was perceived by their students. No significant gender differences were found in self-reported or students rated teacher effectiveness. Comparing medical and engineering faculty, self-reported teacher effectiveness among engineering faculty members was found to be higher than those of medical faculty, however, no significant difference was observed in students-rated teacher effectiveness among the two groups. Recommendation for direct informal feedback from the students by faculty members is discussed.

Keywords

References

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Article

The Effect of Certification and Competency towards Teachers Quality in MAN 3 High School Tangerang, Indonesia

1University of Muhammadiyah Tangerang


American Journal of Educational Research. 2014, 2(5), 267-271
DOI: 10.12691/education-2-5-5
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Zaharah. The Effect of Certification and Competency towards Teachers Quality in MAN 3 High School Tangerang, Indonesia. American Journal of Educational Research. 2014; 2(5):267-271. doi: 10.12691/education-2-5-5.

Correspondence to:  Zaharah, University of Muhammadiyah Tangerang. Email: chibro9699@yahoo.com

Abstract

The study of the effect of certification and competency towards teacher quality has been carried out in MAN 3 High School of Tangerang, Perum Islamic Karawaci Tangerang City District, Banten Province, Indonesia, from 2013 until 2014. The main objective of this study was to determine (1) whether there is a difference in the quality of teachers before and after certification, and (2) to the extent of which the influence of certification benefit on teacher performance. The method used in this study was survey that was limited to the survey of sample. In determining the size of the sample of those teachers who had been certified, the sampling technique used was simple random technique. Descriptive quantitative by using figures and calculations with statistical methods was used on this study. The data then classified and categorized using certain tables. Simple regression analysis, two-way analysis variance with the fulfillment of the test homogeneity variance analysis, and test validity and reliability were used for data analysis. The results showed that (1) all data had met the prerequisite test analysis based on the results of test normality and linearity (2) There were positive and significant effect for certification on teacher quality.

Keywords

References

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Article

Six Essential Instructional Roles to Implement Response to Intervention Models: Perceptions of Highly Qualified Special Educators

1University of Colorado, Boulder


American Journal of Educational Research. 2014, 2(5), 257-266
DOI: 10.12691/education-2-5-4
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
John J. Hoover, Julia S. Sarris. Six Essential Instructional Roles to Implement Response to Intervention Models: Perceptions of Highly Qualified Special Educators. American Journal of Educational Research. 2014; 2(5):257-266. doi: 10.12691/education-2-5-4.

Correspondence to: John  J. Hoover, University of Colorado, Boulder. Email: john.hoover@colorado.edu

Abstract

Survey research was conducted to examine practitioners’ reported implementation of key instructional roles in response to intervention (RTI) models. A survey was administered to 65 practitioners who completed a nationally accredited degree program from 2004-2011, resulting in a Masters Degree in Special Education and a state teaching endorsement as a highly qualified K-12 special educator. Research addressed the question: To what extent do practitioners trained as special educators report engaging in six key roles, and associated subskills, in their implementation of an RTI Model? Results suggest that educators trained in special education, working in general or special education settings, engage in implementing each of the key roles within their RTI models. Implications and suggestions for teacher preparation of special educators are provided.

Keywords

References

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[5]  Council for Exceptional Children. (2007). Position on response to intervention (RTI): The unique role of special education and special educators. Washington, DC: Council for Exceptional Children.
 
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Article

Determination of the Relation between Undergraduate Students’ Awareness Levels Regarding Their Scientific Process Skills and Application Potentials

1Department of Chemical Education, Atatürk University, Erzurum, Turkey

2Department of Science Education, Erzincan University, Erzincan, Turkey


American Journal of Educational Research. 2014, 2(5), 250-256
DOI: 10.12691/education-2-5-3
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Ahmet GÜRSES, Şafak CUYA, Kübra GÜNEŞ, Çetin DOĞAR. Determination of the Relation between Undergraduate Students’ Awareness Levels Regarding Their Scientific Process Skills and Application Potentials. American Journal of Educational Research. 2014; 2(5):250-256. doi: 10.12691/education-2-5-3.

Correspondence to: Ahmet  GÜRSES, Department of Chemical Education, Atatürk University, Erzurum, Turkey. Email: ahmetgu@yahoo.com

Abstract

Scientific process skills are those that facilitate learning in science, allow students to be active, improve the sense of responsibility for their own learning, increase their retention skills and also show routes and methods of research. The measurement tool used to measure undergraduate students’ science process skills is a test consisting of 26 questions. This test covers identifying and checking basic skills and variables such as observation, classification, measurement, communication, and prediction using space-time relationships, and integrated process skills such as inference, operational definition, making the interpretation of data and hypotheses and conducting experiments. According to Bloom’s taxonomy of cognitive development, questions also knowledge, comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis, and evaluation aspects. This study, by expediently electing among the education faculties in Turkey, was conducted with 165 undergraduate students from different departments at Faculty of Education of a big university in the Eastern Anatolia province, Turkey to determine the relationship between undergraduate students’ awareness levels regarding scientific process skills and application potential, using survey method which is an implementation of non-experimental quantitative research methods. In the science process skills tests (SPST) prepared for this purpose; the effect of students’ demographic characteristics (grade level, branch, academic achievement, and learning environment) on these skills were studied and results, using SPSS 18.0 software package with an analysis of variance (ANOVA), were statistically evaluated. Of these assessment results; it has been concluded that the difference in levels of awareness of the students lead to significant differences in terms of science process skills application potential, however, other variables and demographic characteristics do not lead to significant differences.

Keywords

References

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Article

Input-Output Analysis of Eko Project Training Programme in , Nigeria

1Department of Educational Management, Lagos State University, Lagos, Nigeria

2Department of Science and Technology Education, Lagos State University, Lagos, Nigeria

3Department of Language Arts and Social Science Education, Lagos State University, Lagos, Nigeria


American Journal of Educational Research. 2014, 2(5), 245-249
DOI: 10.12691/education-2-5-2
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Samuel Akinyemi, Peter A. Okebukola, Adebisi A. Olorunfemi, Igot B. Ofem, Akinrolabu O. Ayoola, Lateefat O.Yahya. Input-Output Analysis of Eko Project Training Programme in , Nigeria. American Journal of Educational Research. 2014; 2(5):245-249. doi: 10.12691/education-2-5-2.

Correspondence to: Samuel  Akinyemi, Department of Educational Management, Lagos State University, Lagos, Nigeria. Email: Samuel.akinyemi@lasu.edu.ng

Abstract

This study examined the extent to which Lagos Eko project training had enhanced the teachers’ performance and the academic performance of the students in . It also investigated the perceptions of teachers and students on the school provision of supportive facilities to aid the Eko Project training. The study adopted descriptive survey and ex-post- facto research designs. Using the whole population of the 24 trained teachers enrolled for the 2012 Lagos Eko Secondary Education Training in Production and Utilisation of Media as the sample for the study, the standardised Lagos Eko Secondary Education Project information sheet, Registration forms filled by the participants, Students academic profiles from the school records before and after the training; and a questionnaire for students to elicit information on the quality of the teacher’s instructions before and after the training were used as the instruments to guide answers to the research questions. T-test and Multivariate Analysis of Variance statistical tools were used to test the hypotheses. Findings revealed that the perceptions of teachers and students to the quality of instruction delivery after the exposure of trainee teachers to Eko project training did not differ, and that the exposure of trainee teachers to Eko project training enhanced their quality of instruction delivery in classrooms after the training. Also, a significant difference was found to exist in the perceptions of the respondents to the provision of supportive facilities to aid the implementation objectives of the intervention project which implies the dependence of the success of Eko project training on the provision of required facilities to support instruction delivery. The study also found a significant difference in the academic performance of students before and after being taught by Eko project trainee teachers and that the effect of the Eko project accounted for 90%, 84% and 46% of the variability in Mathematics, English language, and Basic Science performances respectively. Based on the findings therefore, It was recommended that the project should be a continuous process towards enhancing sustainable students’ good academic performance in the state secondary schools, and that efforts should be made by the World Bank to extend this project to the other states for holistic and effective transformation of secondary education in the country.

Keywords

References

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Article

A New Graphical User Interface for Teaching NMR

1Department of Applied Mathematics and Sciences, Khalifa University, UAE

2Department of Electronic Engineering, Khalifa University, UAE


American Journal of Educational Research. 2014, 2(5), 240-244
DOI: 10.12691/education-2-5-1
Copyright © 2014 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Jamal Hassan, Ahmad Al Nabulsi. A New Graphical User Interface for Teaching NMR. American Journal of Educational Research. 2014; 2(5):240-244. doi: 10.12691/education-2-5-1.

Correspondence to: Jamal  Hassan, Department of Applied Mathematics and Sciences, Khalifa University, UAE. Email: jamalhassan@kustar.ac.ae

Abstract

The classical Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) vector model is known to be very effective and useful in teaching basic NMR 1D pulse sequences such as spin echo. For more complicated spin systems, density matrix calculation is often used. This method is known to be very complicated and not easy to follow after couple steps. Students usually get lost within the calculation and loose the physical meaning of the effect of different NMR pulses and other operations (chemical shifts, scalar-couplings) on the spin-system under investigation. As a compromise, another methodology has been developed which depends on the spin angular momentum operators. This is known as product operator formalism which involves less mathematical calculations, but still requires the user to know the correct outcome of different NMR pulses, scalar couplings and chemical shifts on different spin operators. We have developed product operator graphical user interface (OP-GUI) using MATLAB software that is capable of calculating product operators of up to four-coupled ½ spin systems. The effect of NMR pulses, scalar-coupling and chemical shifts on the spin system under investigation can be easily calculated. In this paper, several examples are given as prove of concept to show the capability and flexibility of the obtained OP-GUI in dealing with spin systems. We believe the obtained calculator is an effective teaching tool for new students in NMR and will help them to better understand and interpret complicated NMR pulse sequences applied on up to four weakly coupled ½ spin systems.

Keywords

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