ISSN (Print): 2327-6126

ISSN (Online): 2327-6150


Editor-in-chief: Freddie W. Litton

Content: Volume 1, Issue 5


The Study of Second Language Acquisition Under Socio-Cultural Theory

1School of Foreign Languages, University of Jinan, Jinan City, China

American Journal of Educational Research. 2013, 1(5), 162-167
DOI: 10.12691/education-1-5-3
Copyright © 2013 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Liang Aimin. The Study of Second Language Acquisition Under Socio-Cultural Theory. American Journal of Educational Research. 2013; 1(5):162-167. doi: 10.12691/education-1-5-3.

Correspondence to: Liang Aimin, School of Foreign Languages, University of Jinan, Jinan City, China. Email:


Socio-Cultural Theory, based on Vygotskian thought, is a theory about the development of human cognitive and higher mental function. The theory specially emphasizes the integration of social, cultural and biological elements in learning processes and stresses the socio-cultural circumstances’ central role in human’s cognitive development. Second Language Acquisition is concerned with the process of how a new language other than the native language is acquired and how much this is affected by other disciplines, among which is Socio-Cultural Theory. This theory facilitates reflection on some of the problems on second language acquisition from a new perspective. In addition, this new perspective provides some pedagogical implications for foreign language teaching. This article makes attempts to elucidate Social-Cultural Theory’s constructs, its influence on second language acquisition and the pedagogical implications for foreign language teaching.



[1]  Brown, H. D. Principles of language learning and teaching, Pearson Education Inc. New York 2007,30-36.
[2]  Bruner, J. Actual minds, possible worlds, Harvard University Press. Massachusetts, 1986,45-61.
[3]  Centeno-Cortés, B.. Private speech in the second language classroom: Its role in internalization and its link to social production. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Pennsylvania State University. University Park, 2003,45-60.
[4]  Chaiklin, S. The zone of proximal development in Vygotsky’s analysis of learning and instruction. In A. Kozulin, B. Gindis, V. Ageyev, & S. Miller (Eds.), Vygotsky’s Educational Theory in Cultural Context. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2003, 39-64.
[5]  Chomsky, N. Language and mind, Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, New York, NY, 1968,78-94.
Show More References
[6]  Cook, V. Second language learning and language teaching, Hodder Education. London, 2008, 54-60.
[7]  Davies, A. An introduction to applied linguistics: From practice to theory, Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh, 2007, 23-34.
[8]  Donato, R. Collective scaffolding in second language learning. In: J. P. Lantolf and G. Appel. (eds.), Vygostskian approaches to second language research. Ablex Publishing Corporation, N.J. 1994, 33-56.
[9]  Ehrich, J. F. Vygotskian inner speech and the reading process. Australian Journal of Educational & Developmental Psychology, 6(3).12-25. Jun.2006.
[10]  Ellis, R. Task-based research and language pedagogy. Language Teaching Research, 6(3) .193-220. Jun.2000.
[11]  Gass, S. M., & Selinker, L. Second language acquisition, Taylor & Francis, Routledge, Oxon, 2008, 30-34.
[12]  Gillette, B. The role of learner goals in L2 success: Sociocultural theory and children with special needs. In:J.P. Lantolf & G. Appel. (eds.), Vygotskian approaches to second language research, Norwood, NJ: Ablex, 1994, 195-210.
[13]  Lantolf, J. P . Sociocultural theory and second language learning, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2000, 34-35.
[14]  Lantolf, J. P. & Thorne, S. L Socio-cultural theory and the genesis of second language development, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2006, 23-24.
[15]  Lantolf, J.P.Socio-cultural theory and second language development:State-of-the-art [J]. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 54 ( 28). 67-109. Dce. 2006.
[16]  Lantolf, P. J. Sociocultural Theory: A unified approach to L2 learning and teaching .In J. Cummins & C. Davison.(eds.), International handbook of English language teaching, Springer Science Business Media, LLC, NY, 2007, 693-701.
[17]  Lauria,A.R. The making of mind. A personal account of Soviet psychology. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA,1979,45-50.
[18]  Liwei. Thought and language, Beijing University Press, Beijing, 2010, 10-11.
[19]  Mitchell, R. Myles, F. Second language learning theories, Arnold, London, 2004, 4-6.
[20]  Parks, S. Same task, different activities: Issues of investment, identity and use of strategy. TESL Canada Journal, 17(2). 64-89. Feb.2000.
[21]  Ratner, C. Cultural psychology:theory and method, Kluwer/Plenum, New York, 2002,67-73.
[22]  Roebuch,R. Reading and recall in L1 and L2: a sociocultural approach, Ablex Publishing Corporation, Stamford, 1998,55-60.
[23]  Skinner, B.F. Verbal behavior. Appleton-Century-Crofts, New York, 1957, 24-30.
[24]  Swain,M. The output hypothesis and beyond: mediating acquisition through collaborative dialogue. In Lantolf,J.P.(ED). Sociocultural Theory and Second Language Learning. Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2000, 97-114.
[25]  Wen,W. Activity theory and second language acquisition. Sino-US English Teaching, 5(5), May 2008.[Online]. Available: ).
[26]  Vygotsky, L. Mind in society: The development of higher psychological processes, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA, 1978, 56-58.
[27]  Vygotsky, L.S.. Problems of general psychology, In R. Reiber & A. Carton (Eds.) The Collected Works of L. S. Vygotsky, Plenum Press, New York, 1987, 2.
Show Less References


Way of Life of the Educational Organization: Intellectual Model

1Associate professor, management department of SFedU

2Head of economic department of SFedU

American Journal of Educational Research. 2013, 1(5), 156-161
DOI: 10.12691/education-1-5-2
Copyright © 2013 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Tatiana Korsakova, Mikhail Korsakov. Way of Life of the Educational Organization: Intellectual Model. American Journal of Educational Research. 2013; 1(5):156-161. doi: 10.12691/education-1-5-2.

Correspondence to: Tatiana Korsakova, Associate professor, management department of SFedU. Email: takors


This problem analytical scientific article informs the reader about nowadays academic standards of secondary school management and their suitability to social, historical, political and economic realities of the development of civilization. It sets out and protects by academic evidence different points of view on the new enough concept of «Way of educational organization life», gives modern approaches to the problem and methods for its solution, justifies the concept. It is built on the rules of the logic of scientific research. The presented intellectual model of Way of life of educational organization is based on the most important elements of intellectual capital, and the latent factors of cumulative approach to the development of the educational organization. As the way of life of the educational institutions is multifaceted and complex phenomenon of reality six main factors of the intellectual model were appointed in the paper. As the way of life of the educational institutions is multifaceted and complex phenomenon of reality six main factors of the intellectual model were appointed in the paper. It is demonstrated that there within the Way of life are internal communications, the basic properties of the laws of development, self-development and interaction with the environment.



[1]  Popov V. N. Systems analysis in management. Moscow, KNORUS, 2007. -304
[2]  Leonard, D., Straus C. Knowledge management. Series "Classics Harvard Business Review» - Moscow, Harvard Business Review, 2006. – 208
[3]  Korsakova T.V. Way of the school life: obvious result of the hidden curriculum. LAP LAMBERT Academic PublishingGmbH&Co.KG. Saatbrucken, 2011.
[4]  Jackson, P. Life in classrooms. New York: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston. 1968.
[5]  Washbourn К. New schools of Western Europe. Moscow. Posrednik. 1982.
Show More References
[6]  Meighan, Roland. Sociology of Education. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1981.
[7]  Tubelsky A. Thoughts about school way. The First of September, № 23. 1999г.
[8]  Ortega-Gasset H. Revolt of the masses. Moscow. ACT, 2003.-389
[9]  Drucker P. Task of the manager in the XXI century. Мoscow, Publishing house "Williams", 2000.
Show Less References


Intellectual Capital’s Leverage on Shareholder Value Growth: A Lesson for Developing Economies

1Solusi University, Zimbabwe

American Journal of Educational Research. 2013, 1(5), 149-155
DOI: 10.12691/education-1-5-1
Copyright © 2013 Science and Education Publishing

Cite this paper:
Bongani Ngwenya. Intellectual Capital’s Leverage on Shareholder Value Growth: A Lesson for Developing Economies. American Journal of Educational Research. 2013; 1(5):149-155. doi: 10.12691/education-1-5-1.

Correspondence to: Bongani Ngwenya, Solusi University, Zimbabwe. Email:


The purpose of this study is to evaluate whether there is a correlation between the intellectual capital of employees, i.e. top managers (the agent) and the shareholder (the principal) value growth among Zimbabwean companies, listed on the Zimbabwe Stock Exchange. By using these results the aim is to further examine a possible indicator for leveraging the efficiency of intellectual capital in a developing economy as a lesson. In order to perform this investigation, intellectual capital and shareholder value are quantified with, respectively, value added per employee and share price value per employee. These measurements are gathered from 17 Zimbabwean listed companies, divided into five industry sectors, that is, services, manufacturing, agriculture, mining and information technology, and tested statistically in order to find a relationship. This means, according to the researcher`s propositions on the return on intellectual capital, that there also is a correlation between intellectual capital and shareholder value growth. In order to provide an indicator for improving companies’ intellectual capital, a statistical examination concerning the relationship between the Intellectual Capital Multiplier (IC Multiplier) and value added is also performed. This examination shows that there is a strong correlation between the IC Multiplier and value added, value added can to a degree of 84 percent be predicted by the IC Multiplier, and that working with the ratio between structural and human capital is an excellent method for companies in developing economies to increase their intellectual capital. In conclusion it can be said that most companies in this investigation show moderately low values regarding the IC Multiplier, leading to an erosion of the companies’ human capital. In order to become more stable and lower the degree of risk, these companies must improve their IC Multiplier. What this study demonstrates is that an improvement of the IC Multiplier also will have an extensive effect on the company’s shareholder value growth.



[1]  Johnson, M, “Intellectual Capital`s Leverage on Market Value”, Book House.
[2]  Lev, B 2000, “Knowledge and shareholder value”,, download May 15 2002, 2002.
[3]  Gu, F, and Lev, B, “Intangible Assets–Measurement, drivers, usefulness”,, download April 10 2002, 2001.
[4]  Edvinsson, L, and Malone, M. S, “Intellectual Capital: realizing your company’s true value by finding its hidden brainpower”, Harper Business, 1997.
[5]  Pulic, A, “VAIC–An Accounting Tool for IC Management”,, download April 15th 2002, 2000.
Show More References
[6]  Rylander, A, Jackobsen, K., and Roos, G, “Towards improved information disclosure on intellectual capital”, International Journal of Technology Management, Volume 20(5/6/7/8), 715-741, 2000.
[7]  Bontis, N, “There`s a price on your head: managing intellectual capital strategically”, Business Quarterly, Summer, 40-47, 1996.
[8]  Bontis, N, “Intellectual capital: an exploratory study that develops measures and models” Management Decision, Volume 36(2), 63-76, 1998.
[9]  Bontis, N, "Managing Organizational Knowledge by Diagnosing Intellectual Capital: Framing and advancing the state of the field", International Journal of Technology Management, Volume 18(5/6/7/8), 433-462, 1999.
[10]  Collis, D.J, and Montgomery, C.A, “Competing on resources: strategy in the 1990s”, Harvard Business Review, 118-128, 1995.
[11]  Guthrie, J, “The management, measurement and the reporting of intellectual capital, Journal of Intellectual Capital, Volume 2(1), 27-41, 2001.
[12]  Edvinsson, L, “Developing IC at Skandia”, Long Range Planning, Volume 30(3), 320-321-366-373. 1997.
[13]  Dzinkowski, R, “The measurement and management of intellectual capital: an introduction”, Management Accounting: Magazine for Chartered Management Accountants, Volume 78(2), 32-36, 2000.
[14]  Pike, S, Rylander, A., and Roos, G, “Intellectual capital management disclosure”, In Choo, C.W., and Bontis, N (Ed), The Strategic Management of Intellectual Capital and Organizational Knowledge: A Selection of Readings, Oxford University Press, New York, NY, 2001.
[15]  Sveiby, K, “The new organizational wealth: managing & measuring knowledge-based assets”, Berrett-Koehler, 1997.
[16]  Sveiby, K., Arbetsgruppen, K, “Den osynliga balansräkningen”, Affärsvärlden förlag AB, 2000, Curry, A., and Cavendish, S (editors), download April 14th 2002, 1990.
[17]  Barney, J.B, “Firm resources and sustained competitive advantage”, Journal of Management, Volume 17, 99-120, 1991.
[18]  Edvinsson, L, “Corporate Longitude: navigating the knowledge economy”, Book house, 2002.
Show Less References

SciEP events