American Journal of Educational Research
ISSN (Print): 2327-6126 ISSN (Online): 2327-6150 Website: http://www.sciepub.com/journal/education Editor-in-chief: Ratko Pavlović
Open Access
Journal Browser
Go
American Journal of Educational Research. 2019, 7(1), 12-18
DOI: 10.12691/education-7-1-3
Open AccessArticle

Employing the Subsequent Four Years of the Libyan Education Reform Strategy: Administrations and Contributors

Dr. Ageila Ali Elabbar1,

1Academic Attach¨¦ at the Embassy of Libya, Washington DC

Pub. Date: January 06, 2019

Cite this paper:
Dr. Ageila Ali Elabbar. Employing the Subsequent Four Years of the Libyan Education Reform Strategy: Administrations and Contributors. American Journal of Educational Research. 2019; 7(1):12-18. doi: 10.12691/education-7-1-3

Abstract

This paper is the third continuation of the previously published paper ¡°National Libyan Public Education Reform: Entire Transformative Strategies, 2020¨C2026¡± (November 2017), which proposes a complete framework for reforming Libyan public education and reflects on the difficulties that educators and learners have faced due to existing confusing conditions. It divides the entire reform plan into six years of gradual reform actions to overcome their complications; these complications stem from the discouraged forms of education, changeable curricula, bureaucratic schools and university administrations, the conservative community, and uncertain education strategies. Another factor is the way that learners acquire information (that is, their learning styles). In addition, upheavals all over Libya have affected the overall stability of education in Libya and led to there being two ministries of education (East and West Libya). Thus, six years of gradual reform stages were proposed so that a new generation of students would start with pre-kindergarten in the academic year 2026 or the equivalent. This paper also is subsequent to the prior published paper (16 May 2018) on the same reverence project, ¡°Contextualizing the First Two Years of the Libyan Education Reform Proposed Strategies (2020¨C2026): Targeted Candidates and Reflective Activities,¡± which explains in depth the suggested Phase I of the first two years (2020¨C2022) of the proposal for reforming Libyan education (2020¨C2026 or equivalent years). The purpose of this paper is to explain in depth the suggested subsequent four years (2022¨C2026 or equivalent years) of the proposed strategy of a six-year reform and come out with clearly constructed strategy without conflicting laws or regulations in the country.

Keywords:
The second four years of actions teachers' colleges HQs inspectors Seiner teachers curriculum designers teachers¡¯ TV MOE-database role of social workers expected new generation new schools¡¯ structures and budgets

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

References:

[1]  Elabbar. (2011). An investigation of influences affecting Libyan English as Foreign Language University Teachers (LEFLUTs), teaching approaches in the language classrooms phd thesis , university of Glasgow. UK.
 
[2]  Elabbar. (2016). Libyan Political Conflict: Effects on Higher Education development. Scientific Research Journal (SCIRJ), Volume IV, Issue XII, December 2016 1 ISSN 2201-2796.
 
[3]  Elabbar. (2013). Libyan English as a Foreign Language School Teachers' (LEFLSTs) Knowledge of Teaching: Action Research as Continuing Professional Development Model for Libyan School Teachers. IOSR Journal of Humanities and Social Science (IOS).
 
[4]  Elabbar. (2017), "National Libyan Public Education Reform: Entire Transformative Strategies, 2020-2026." American Journal of Educational Research, vol. 5, no. 6 (2017): 1044-1057.
 
[5]  Elabbar. (2018). Contextualizing the First Two Years of the Libyan Education Reform Proposed Strategies (2020¨C2026): Targeted Candidates and Reflective Activities, American Journal of Educational Research, vol. 6, no. 6 (2018): 1269-1281.
 
[6]  Latiwish, M. (2003). Teacher's training strategies. Benghazi: University of Garyounis Press.
 
[7]  Institute of Professional Development (IPD). (2006). Uses of CPD. From http://www.ipd.org/ [Accessed on 25 July 2017].
 
[8]  Rodrigues, S. (2004). International perspective on teachers' professional development: Changes influenced by politic pedagogy and innovation. New York, NY: Nova Publishers.
 
[9]  Bell, B. and J. Gilbert. (2001). Teacher development: a model from science education 4(6), 3-10.
 
[10]  Lange, D. (1990). A blueprint for a teacher development programme. In J. C. Richards and D. Nunan (Eds.) Second language teacher education. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 245-268.
 
[11]  Rodrigues, S. M. A. and P. Steel. (2005). Developing science and ICT pedagogical content knowledge: a model of containing professional developments, Edinburgh.
 
[12]  Kanu, Y. (2005). Tensions and dilemmas of cross-cultural transfer of knowledge: post structural/ postcolonial reflections on an innovative teacher education in Pakistan. International Journal of Educational Development 25(4), 493-513.
 
[13]  Guskey, T. R. (2002) Professional development and teacher change. Teachers and teaching Theory and practice 8(3/4), 381-391.
 
[14]  McWilliam, E. (2002) Against Professional Development. Educational Philosophy and Theory 34(3), 289-299.
 
[15]  Deem, R., Hillyard, S. and M. Reed (2008) Knowledge, Higher Education, and the New Managerialism: The Changing Management of UK Universities, Oxford: Open University Press.
 
[16]  Blackmore, P. and Blackwell, R. (2003). ¡®Academic roles and relationships' in R. Blackwell and P. Blackmore (Eds) Towards Strategic Staff Development in Higher Education, Berkshire: SRHE and Open University Press, 16-28.
 
[17]  Higher Education Academy (HEA). (2006). The UK Professional Standards Framework for teaching and supporting learning in higher education. From www.heacademy.ac.uk
 
[18]  Clegg, S. (2003) Problematizing Ourselves: Continuing Professional Development in Higher Education. International Journal for Academic Development 8(1/2), pp37-50.
 
[19]  Department for Education and Employment (DFEE) (2000) Professional development: Support for teaching and learning. London: DFEE.
 
[20]  Abell, S.K. (2008) Twenty years later: Does pedagogical content knowledge remain a useful idea? International Journal of Science Education 30(10), 1405-1416.
 
[21]  Alberta Teachers' Association (ATA) (2000) Action research guide for Alberta teachers. From <http://www.teachers.ab.ca/services/publications (accessed on 10-july-2017).
 
[22]  Ball, D.L., & Bass, H. (2000). Interweaving content and pedagogy in teaching and learning to teach: Knowing and using mathematics. In J.Boaler (Ed.) Multiple Perspectives on Mathematics of Teaching and Learning. (pp. 83-104). Westport, Conn.: Ablex Publishing.
 
[23]  Bates, T, Gough, B and P. Stammers. (1999). The role of central government and its agencies in the continuing Professional development of teachers: an evaluation of recent changes in its financing in England" Journal of In service education 25(2), 321-335.
 
[24]  Baumfield, V., Hall, E. and K. Wall. (2008). Action research in the classroom. London: Sage.
 
[25]  Bax, S. (2003). The end of CLT: a context approach to language teaching. ELT Journal 57(3), 278-87.
 
[26]  Boreham, N. (2004). A Theory of collective competence: Challenging the neoliberal individualisation of performance at work. British Journal of Educational Studies 52, 20-35.
 
[27]  Brien, O. (1998). An overview of the methodological approach of action research. American institute for research 2(4), 1-14.
 
[28]  Burbank, M. D. and D. Kauchak. (2003). An alternative model for professional development: Investigations into effective collaboration. Teaching and Teacher Education 19, 499-522.
 
[29]  Burns, A. (1996). Starting all over again: from teaching adults to teaching beginners. In D. Freeman and J. C. Richards (Eds.) Teacher learning in language teaching. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 122-135.
 
[30]  Clare, J., White, J., Edwards, H. and van Loon, A. (2000). Learning outcomes and curriculum development in the major disciplines: Nursing. Australian Universities Teaching Committee. page 110-129.
 
[31]  Clarke, D. and Hollingsworth, H. (2002). Elaborating a model of teacher professional growth. Teaching & Teacher Education 18(8), 947-967.
 
[32]  Cranton, P. (2006). Understanding and promoting transformative learning: A guide for educators of adults. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
 
[33]  Curran, E., & Murray, M. (2008). Transformative learning in teacher education: Building competencies and changing dispositions. Journal of Scholarship of Teaching and Learning, 8, 103-118.
 
[34]  Day, C. (1999). Developing teachers: The challenges of lifelong learning. London: Falmer press.
 
[35]  Denzin, N. K., and Y. S. Lincoln (Eds.). (2000). Handbook of qualitative research (2nd edition ed.) Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications.
 
[36]  Department for Education and Science (DFES). (2004). National standards for head teachers, Annesley: DFES Publications.
 
[37]  Desimone, L. M. (2009). Improving impact studies of teachers' professional development: toward better conceptualizations and measures. Educational Researcher 38, 181-199.
 
[38]  Draper, J., O'Brien, J. and F. Christie. (2004). First Impressions: The new teacher induction arrangements in Scotland. Journal of In-service Education 28, 198-212.
 
[39]  Feldman, A. (2002). Existential approaches to action research. Educational Action Research 10(1), 233-240.
 
[40]  Fennema, E. and M. L. Franke. (1992). Teachers' knowledge and its impact. In D.A. Grouws (Ed.) Handbook of research on mathematics teaching and learning. New York: Macmillan, 147-164.
 
[41]  Ferrance, E. (2000). Action research. Providence, RI: Northeast and Islands Regional Educational Laboratory at Brown University.
 
[42]  Greenbank. (2003). Reflexivity and positionality. From www.strath.ac.uk/aer/materials/6furtherqualitativeresearchdesignandanalysis/unit1/reflexivityandpositionality. [Accessed on 13 August 2017].
 
[43]  Greenwood, D.J. and M. Levin. (1998). Introduction to action research: social research for social change. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
 
[44]  Guskey, T. R. (2000). Evaluating professional development. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press, 64-65.
 
[45]  Henderson, E. S. (1978). The evaluation of In-Service Teacher Training. London: Croom Helm.
 
[46]  Hew, K. F. and Hara, N. (2007). Empirical study of motivation and barriers of teacher knowledge sharing. Educational Technology Research & Development 55(6), 573-595.
 
[47]  Hill, L. (2000). What does it take to change minds? Intellectual development of pre-service teachers. Journal of Teacher Education 51(1), 50-62.
 
[48]  Hittleman, D. R. and A. J. Simon. (2006). Interpreting educational research. An introduction for Consumers of Research (4th Ed). Columbus, Ohio: Prentice Hall.
 
[49]  Hoban, G. (2002). Teacher learning for educational change: A systems thinking approach. Buckingham: Open University Press.
 
[50]  Hoban, G.F. (2002). Teacher learning for educational change. Buckingham: Open University Press.
 
[51]  Holliday, A. (2005). Doing and writing qualitative research. London: Sage.
 
[52]  Hudson. L. (2002). Holding complexity and searching for meaning: teaching as reflective practice. Journal of Curriculum Studies 1(33), 40-53.
 
[53]  International Association of Universities (IAU). (2009). Structure of educational system: Admissions to higher education recognition of Foreign Credentials. From http://www.iauaiu.net/ [Accessed on 15 august 2017].
 
[54]  Kennedy, A. (2005). Models of continuing professional development (CPD): a framework for analysis. Journal of In-Service Education 21(2), 233-252.
 
[55]  Khalifa, S.M.G. (2002). The use of computers in the teaching of mathematics in Libyan primary. From http://hdl.handle.net/ 10068/508910 [Accessed on 2 November 2017].
 
[56]  Kharma, N. and A. Hajjaj. (1997). Errors in English among Arabic speakers. Beirut: Librairie du Liban.
 
[57]  King, K. P. (2004). Both sides now: Examining transformative learning and professional development of educators. Innovative Higher Education 29(2), 155-174.
 
[58]  Kirk, G., Beveridge, W. and I. Smith. (2003). Policy and practice in education: the chartered teacher. Edinburgh: Dunedin academic press.
 
[59]  Korthagen, F., Loughran, J. and T. Russell. (2006). Developing fundamental principles for teacher education programs and practices. Teaching and Teacher Education 22(8), 10201041.
 
[60]  Levin, M. and D. Greenwood. (2001). Pragmatic action research and the struggle to transform universities into learning communities. In P. Reason and H. Bradbury (Eds.) Handbook of Action Research: Participative Inquiry and Practice. London: Sage.
 
[61]  Loucks-horsley, S., Newson, P.W., Love, N., E. and K. E. Stoles. (1998). Designing professional development for teachers of science and mathematics. One Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.
 
[62]  Lunenberg, M., F. Korthagen and A. Swennen. (2007). The teacher educator as a role model. Teaching and Teacher Education 23(5), 586-601.
 
[63]  McNiff, J., Lomax, P. and J. Whitehead. (1996). You and your action research project. London: Routledge.
 
[64]  Mezirow, J. A. (2000). Learning as transformation: Critical perspective on a theory in progress. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
 
[65]  Mills, G. E. (ed.). (2007). Action research. A guide for the teacher researcher. Ohio: Prentice Hall Columbus.
 
[66]  Rajab, A. (2007). Student attitudes in the context of the curriculum in Libyan education in middle and high schools. Unpublished PhD Thesis, University of Glasgow.
 
[67]  Reza Arabsheibani, G. and L. Manfor. (2007). Non-Linearities in Returns to Education in Libya. Education Economics 9(1), 134-145.
 
[68]  Rhodes, C. and S. Beneicke. (2002). Coaching, Mentoring and Peer-networking: challenges for the management of teacher professional development in schools. Journal of In-service Education 28, 297-309.
 
[69]  Richards, J. C. and T. S. C. Farrell. (2005). Professional development for language teachers. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.
 
[70]  Robinson-Pant, A. (2007). Cross Cultural Perspectives on Educational Research. Berkshire: Open University Press.
 
[71]  Rogers, T. (2001) Language teaching methodology. From http://www.cal.org/resources/digest/rodgers.html [Accessed on 13 September 2017].
 
[72]  Sabander, J. (1999). Language learning in large classes in Indonesia. Lancaster-Leeds Language Learning in Large Classes Research Project - project report no. 9. From http://opensigle.inist.fr/handle/10068/516519 [Accessed on 13 April 2017].
 
[73]  Wenger, E. (2007). Communities of practice: A brief introduction. From http://www.ewenger.com/theory/ [Accessed on 14 July 2017].
 
[74]  Widdowson, H. G. (1990) Aspects of language teaching. Oxford: Oxford University Press.