American Journal of Educational Research
ISSN (Print): 2327-6126 ISSN (Online): 2327-6150 Website: Editor-in-chief: Ratko Pavlović
Open Access
Journal Browser
American Journal of Educational Research. 2018, 6(9), 1333-1337
DOI: 10.12691/education-6-9-14
Open AccessReview Article

Diversity and Multicultural Education: Racism, Bilingualism, Disabilities and LGBTQ Students

Hisham A. Maddah1,

1King Abdulaziz University, Rabigh, Saudi Arabia, Tiffin University, Tiffin, United States

Pub. Date: October 10, 2018

Cite this paper:
Hisham A. Maddah. Diversity and Multicultural Education: Racism, Bilingualism, Disabilities and LGBTQ Students. American Journal of Educational Research. 2018; 6(9):1333-1337. doi: 10.12691/education-6-9-14


Diversity and multicultural education have a serious impact on the student¡¯s behavior and success. Embracing diversity is a challenging task for many educators. In this paper, we discuss diversity issues and professional standards for educational leaders that should be adopted to promote individualism, equity, and student engagement. Discussed diversity-related issues are: (1) Racism: Racial incidents towards black race in Oklahoma State University and towards indigenous rugby players in Australian sports were analyzed to have inclusive and racism-free environments through positive relations and multicultural reform; (2) Bilingualism: Ideas from both advocates and criticizers of linguistic diversity were evaluated to reach the end result that bilingual education programs must be adopted to develop students understanding and success; (3) LGBTQ students: Schools should enforce inclusions and support GSA clubs; (4) Disabilities: Accommodations for deaf and/or hard-of-hearing students must be provided for use in instruction for English-language learners. Lastly, strategies to embrace diversity like effective communication, equality and engagement with others were proposed to overcome challenges that face educators in creating a diverse and inclusive campus.

leaders educators diversity racism students

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit


[1]  J. A. Banks and C. A. M. Banks, "Multicultural education: Issues and perspectives," John Wiley Sons, 2016.
[2]  J. U. Ogbu, "Understanding cultural diversity and learning," Educ. Res., vol. 21, no. 8, pp. 5-14, 1992.
[3]  NPBEA, "Professional Standards for Educational Leaders 2015," Natl. Policy Board Educ. Adm. Reston, V. A., 2015.
[4]  K. MCNUTT, "Oklahoma State University students issue action plan to improve racial climate on campus," 2018. [Online]. Available:
[5]  D. Adair, "Race , ethnicity and Indigeneity - challenges and opportunities for embracing diversity in sport," Cosmop. Civ. Soc. An Interdiscip. J., 2010.
[6]  S. I. Thangaraj, "¡®Liting it up': Popular Culture, Indo-Pak Basketball, and South Asian American Institutions," Cosmop. Civ. Soc. An Interdiscip. J., vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 71-91, 2010.
[7]  T. Soutphommasane, "Australian sport and racial vilification: Speech to Australian and New Zealand Sports Law Association Annual Conference," 2014. [Online]. Available:
[8]  As. Maraikayar, "BILINGUAL EDUCATION," Encycl. Lang. Educ., vol. 5, 2007.
[9]  R. Yandell, "Washington School for the Deaf: Bilingual Education," 2016. [Online]. Available:
[10]  T. Elyas, "The attitude and the impact of the American English as a global language within the Saudi education system," Novitas-ROYAL, 2008.
[11]  H. Al-Nofaie, "THE ATTITUDES OF TEACHERS AND STUDENTS TOWARDS USING ARABIC IN EFL CLASSROOMS IN SAUDI PUBLIC SCHOOLS-A CASE STUDY Introduction Teaching English in the Saudi context," Novitas-ROYAL (Research Youth Lang., 2010.
[12]  GSA Network, "Our Approach," 2018. [Online]. Available:
[13]  E. Minero, "Schools Struggle to Support LGBTQ Students," Edutopia, 2018. [Online]. Available:
[14]  J. Gonzalez, "Making School a Safe Place for LGBTQ Students," Cult of Pedagogy, 2017. [Online]. Available:
[15]  The University of the State of New York, "Students with Disabilities: Terms and Definitions," 2009. [Online]. Available: DisabilitiesTermsandDefinitions.pdf.
[16]  Ohio Department of Education, "Ohio's Alternate Assessment for Students with Significant Cognitive Disabilities (AASCD)," 2018. [Online]. Available:
[17]  Tiffin University, "Office for Disability Services Manual (2017-2018)," 2017. [Online]. Available:
[18]  Ohio Department of Education, "Accommodations Manual: Accommodations for Use in Instruction Based on a Child's Characteristics," 2011. [Online]. Available:
[19]  M. Diament, "Trump Directive Spurs Proposal To Delay IDEA Rule," 2018. [Online]. Available:
[20]  L. Shaw, "7 Ways To Handle Diversity," 2016. [Online]. Available:
[21]  C. McCauley and B. Mawr, "Diversity Workshops on Campus: A Survey of Current Practice at U.S. Colleges and Universities," Coll. Stud. J., 2000.
[22]  The University of Arizona, "The Challenges to Creating a Diverse and Inclusive Campus," 2018. [Online]. Available: