American Journal of Educational Research
ISSN (Print): 2327-6126 ISSN (Online): 2327-6150 Website: http://www.sciepub.com/journal/education Editor-in-chief: Ratko Pavlović
Open Access
Journal Browser
Go
American Journal of Educational Research. 2018, 6(8), 1188-1193
DOI: 10.12691/education-6-8-18
Open AccessArticle

Correlates of Academic Performance in Pupils under a Feeding Program

Jessica B. Soliman1, Victor S. Soliman2, , Ma. Jocelyn J. Paje2 and Myrna C. Pereyra3

1School Feeding Program, Department of Education, Tabaco City, Philippines

2Graduate School, Bicol University, Legazpi City, Philippines

3Extension Department, Bicol University Tabaco Campus, Tabaco City, Philippines

Pub. Date: August 21, 2018

Cite this paper:
Jessica B. Soliman, Victor S. Soliman, Ma. Jocelyn J. Paje and Myrna C. Pereyra. Correlates of Academic Performance in Pupils under a Feeding Program. American Journal of Educational Research. 2018; 6(8):1188-1193. doi: 10.12691/education-6-8-18

Abstract

School feeding (SF) has long been a welfare scheme adopted in the Philippines but there are very limited empirical studies that assessed its effectiveness. The nutrition-cognition nexus needs to be examined especially that regular SF program has been institutionalized recently by the government. From a set of socioeconomic factors and anthropometric measures, the present study determined which of them are significantly associated with the composite final grade of pupils. All recipients (N=80 malnourished primary schoolchildren were served lunch) of the Busog-Lusog-Talino (“Full-Healthy-Bright”) School Feeding Program in San Carlos Elementary School in southern Bicol (Philippines) for two school years were participants to the study. Pearson correlation analysis revealed that parents’ education and pupils’ concurrent body mass index (BMI) are positive explanatory factors correlated with the final grade. Differing from many studies where mother’s education had commonly been a dominant and only parent gender significant factor to pupils’ academic achievement, the study revealed that under circumstances of poor family economic status the education of fathers had higher association than mothers’. Concurrent BMI (i.e., measured while the school feeding was implemented) is significantly linked to pupils’ grades providing evidence for the need in sustaining good nutrition from school to the home. Schoolchildren under varying low levels of nutritional status and with low parents’ education are predisposed to low academic performance. Implications of the findings to improving school feeding monitoring were elucidated.

Keywords:
final grades anthropometrics socio-economic status parent’s education

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

References:

[1]  Eccles, J.S., Influences of parents’ education on their children’s educational attainments: the role of parent and child perceptions. London Review of Education, 3(3). 191-204. 2005.
 
[2]  Alderman, H., Gilligan, D., & Lehrer, K., The impact of food for education programs on school participation in Northern Uganda. International Food Policy Research Institute, Washington, DC, 2010.
 
[3]  Grantham-McGregor S., A review of studies of the effects of severe malnutrition on mental development. Journal of Nutrition 125: S2233-8, 1995.
 
[4]  Glewwe, P., Jacoby, H.G., King, E.M., Early childhood nutrition and academic achievement: a longitudinal analysis. J Public Econ 81: 345-68, 2001.
 
[5]  Jamison, D.T., Child malnutrition and school performance in China. J Dev Econ 20: 299-309, 1986.
 
[6]  Gorman, K., Malnutrition and cognitive development: evidence from experimental/quasi-experimental studies among the mild-to-moderately malnourished. J Nutr. 125: 2239S-2262S, 1995.
 
[7]  Alaimo, K., Olson, C.M., Frongillo, E.A. Jr, & Briefel, R.R., Food insufficiency, family income, and health in US preschool and school-aged children. Am J Public Health 91, 781-786, 2001.
 
[8]  Alderman, H., Hoddinott, J., & Kinsey, B., Long-term consequences of early childhood malnutrition, Oxford Economic Papers, Volume 58 (3): 450-474, 2006.
 
[9]  Black, R.E., Allen, L.H., & Bhutta, Z.A., Maternal and child undernutrition: global and regional exposures and health consequences. Lancet 371, 243-260, 2008.
 
[10]  Davis-Kean, P. E., The influence of parent education and family income on child achievement: the indirect role of parental expectations and the home environment. Journal of Family Psychology, 19(2), 294-304, 2005.
 
[11]  Eccles, J.S., School and family effects on the ontogeny of children’s interests, self-perceptions, and activity choices. In J. Jacobs (Ed.), Nebraska Symposium on Motivation, 1992: Developmental perspectives on motivation pp. 145-208. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press. 1993.
 
[12]  Eccles, J.S. & Davis-Kean, P.E., Influences of parents' education on their children's educational attainments: The role of parent and child perceptions. London Review of Education, 3(3), 191-204, 2005.
 
[13]  Florencio, C., Report to UNESCO on school health and nutrition problems and programs in the Philippines. Paris: UNESCO, 1990.
 
[14]  Florencio, Cecilia A., Child, school, home: determinants of academic performance. Edukasyon 1(2), A Quarterly Monograph Series of the University of the Philippines Education Research Program, 1995.
 
[15]  Adelman, S. W., Gilligan, D. O., & Lehrer, K., How effective are food for education programs? A critical assessment of the evidence from developing countries. In Food policy review No. 9. Washington, DC: International Food Policy Research Institute. 2008.
 
[16]  Glewwe, P., The impact of child health and nutrition on education in developing countries: Theory, econometric issues, and recent empirical evidence. Food and Nutrition Bulletin, 26(2): S235-S250, 2005.
 
[17]  Belot, M., & James, J., Healthy school meals and educational outcomes. Journal of Health Economics 30, 489-504, 2011.
 
[18]  National Nutrition Council, Philippine Plan of Action for Nutrition (PPAN) 2011-2016, 2012, 34 pp.
 
[19]  Broca, S. & Stamoulis, K., Micro-and macro-evidence on the impact of undernourishment (English), In: Nutrition intake and economic growth: Studies on the cost of hunger (Taniguchi, K. Xiaojun Wang) FAO, Rome (Italy). Food and Nutrition Division, 20 pp, 2003.
 
[20]  Grantham-McGregor, S. M., Chang, S., Walker, S. P., Evaluation of school feeding programs: some Jamaican examples. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 67:785S-9S, 1998.
 
[21]  Stevenson, DL and Baker, D.P., Child Development, Vol. 58, No. 5: 1348-1357, 1987.
 
[22]  Baker, D.P. and Stevenson, D.L., Mothers' strategies for children's school achievement: Managing the transition to high school. Sociology of Education, pp.156-166, 1986.
 
[23]  Hernandez, D.J. and Napierala, J.S., Mother's Education and Children's Outcomes: How Dual-Generation Programs Offer Increased Opportunities for America's Families. Disparities among America's Children. No. 2. Foundation for Child Development, 2014.
 
[24]  Augenbraum, H., Noli Me Tángere by Jose Rizal, (in Spanish, 1887), English Translation. New York: Penguin. 444 p, 2006.
 
[25]  Pleck, J.H., Why could father involvement benefit children? Theoretical perspectives. Applied Development Science, 11(4), pp.196-202, 2007.
 
[26]  Parke, R. D., Fathers and families. In M. H. Bornstein (Ed.), Handbook of parenting (2nd ed., Volume 3, 705 pp. 27-73). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum Associates, 2002.
 
[27]  Afridi, F., The impact of school meals on school participation: Evidence from rural India. Journal of Development Studies 47(11), 1636–1656, 2011.
 
[28]  Chakraborty, Tanika and Jayaraman, Rajshri, School Feeding and Learning Achievement: Evidence from India's Midday Meal Program (July 13, 2016). CESifo Working Paper Series No. 5994.
 
[29]  Grantham-McGregor, S., Cheung, Y. B., Cueto, S., Developmental potential in the first 5 years for children in developing countries. Lancet 369: 60-70, 2007.
 
[30]  Davis-Kean, P. E., Eccles, J. S. & Schnabel, K. U., How the home environment socializes a child: the influences of SES on child outcomes. Paper presented at the International Society for the Study of Behavioral Development, Ottawa, Canada, August, 2002.
 
[31]  Grantham-McGregor, S.M. and Walker, S.P., Health and nutritional determinants of school failure. In Nutrition: Health and Child Development: Advances in Research and Policy Implications, pp. 82-90 (SM Gratham-McGregor, editor) Scientific Publication no. 566. Washington, DC: PAHO, 1998.
 
[32]  Jomaa, L.H., McDonnell, E., and Probart, C., School feeding programs in developing countries: impacts on children’s health and educational outcomes. Nutrition Review 69: 83-98, 2011.
 
[33]  McEwan, P. J., The impact of Chile’s school feeding program on education outcomes. Economics of Education Review 32: 122-139, 2013.
 
[34]  Mendez, M.A. and Adair, L.S., Severity and timing of stunting in the first two years of life affect performance on cognitive tests in late childhood. J Nutr 129: 1555-62, 1999.
 
[35]  Popkin, B. and Lim-Ybanez, M., Nutrition and school achievement. Soc Sci Med 16: 53-61, 1982.
 
[36]  Sandjaja, B. K. P., Nipa, R., Bao, K. L. N.,Basuki, B., Lai, O. N., Kusol, S,, Hoang, T. X., Paul, D. and Panam, P., Relationship between anthropometric indicators and cognitive performance in Southeast Asian school-aged children. British Journal of Nutrition 110: S57-S64, 2013.
 
[37]  Steegmann, A.T., Datar, F.A. and Steegmann, R.M., Physical size, school performance and visual-motor maturity in the Philippines. Am J Hum Biol 4: 247-252, 1992.
 
[38]  Strupp, B. and Levitsky, D., Enduring cognitive effects of early malnutrition: a theoretical reappraisal. J Nutr. 125: 2221S-2232S, 1995.
 
[39]  Vermeersch, C. and Kremer, M., School meals, educational achievement and school competition: evidence from a randomized evaluation. Department of Economics, Harvard University, The Brookings Institution, 52 pp., 2004.
 
[40]  Wachs, T., Relation of mild-to-moderate malnutrition to human development: correlational studies. J Nutr.125: 2245S-2254S, 1995.
 
[41]  Whaley, S. E., Sigman, M., Neumann, C., Bwibo, N., Guthrie, D., and Weiss, R. E., The impact of dietary intervention on the cognitive development of Kenyan school children. Journal of Nutrition 133: 3965S-3971S, 2003.
 
[42]  Taras H., Nutrition and student performance at school. J Sch Health 75, 199-213, 2005.
 
[43]  Yu, S. and Hannum, E., Food for thought: poverty, family nutritional environment, and children’s educational performance in rural China. Sociological Perspectives 50(4): 53-77, 2007.
 
[44]  Pollitt, E., Golub, M., and Gorman, K., A reconceptualization of the effects of undernutrition on children’s biological, psychosocial, and behavioral development. Soc Policy Rep.10: 1-21, 1996.
 
[45]  Campbell, F.A. and Ramey, C.T., Effects of early intervention on intellectual and academic achievement: a follow-up study of children from low-income families. Child Development, 65(2), pp.684-698, 1994.