American Journal of Educational Research
ISSN (Print): 2327-6126 ISSN (Online): 2327-6150 Website: http://www.sciepub.com/journal/education Editor-in-chief: Ratko Pavlović
Open Access
Journal Browser
Go
American Journal of Educational Research. 2018, 6(3), 262-269
DOI: 10.12691/education-6-3-13
Open AccessArticle

Academic Performance of Students: the Effect of Class Room Level Factors and Private Tutoring

B.W.R. Damayanthi1,

1Department of Economics, University of Sri Jayewardenepura, Sri Lanka

Pub. Date: March 23, 2018

Cite this paper:
B.W.R. Damayanthi. Academic Performance of Students: the Effect of Class Room Level Factors and Private Tutoring. American Journal of Educational Research. 2018; 6(3):262-269. doi: 10.12691/education-6-3-13

Abstract

Increased participation in private tutoring intended towards the high academic performance has been perceived enormously worldwide. However, to date literature is indecisive about the effect of private tutoring on students’ academic performance. This study directed to observe the impact of private tutoring on students’ academic performance in Sri Lanka. Data was collected from a stratified systematic random sample of 600 children were in Year 7 – 11 and their parents through a questionnaire survey. It was found that private tutoring has positive effect on students’ academic performance while net impact of private tutoring on student’s academic performance is reduced in magnitude when parental education, economic status and especially the effect self leaning hours is concerned. Hence, the study concludes that rather than focusing on private tutoring, efforts to improve self learning strategies that enhance socio-cultural connectedness and human focus can lead to achieve wider goals of education.

Keywords:
private tutoring student performance Sri Lanka

Creative CommonsThis work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

References:

[1]  Dang, H. A. (2007). The determinants and impact of private tutoring classes of Vietnam. Economics of education review, 26(6), 684-699.
 
[2]  Tansel, A., & Bircan, F. (2006). Demand for education in Turkey: a tobit analysis of private tutoring expenditure. Economics of education review, 25(3), 303-313.
 
[3]  Bray, M., & Kwok, P. (2003). Demand for private supplementary tutoring: conceptul considerations and socio-economic patterns in Hong Kong. Economics of education review, 22(6), 611-620.
 
[4]  Bray, M., & Kobakhidze, M. N. (2014). The global spread of shadow education. In D. B. Napier, Qualities of education in a globalised world (pp. 185-200). Istanbul: Sense Publishers.
 
[5]  Davies, S. (2004). School choice by default? Understanding the demand for private tutoring in Canada. American Journal of Education, 1-15.
 
[6]  Dang, H.-A., & Rogers, F. (2008). The growing phenomenon of private tutoring: Does it deepen human capital, widen inequalities, or waste resources? The World Bank Research Observer, 23(2), 161-200.
 
[7]  Bregvadze, T. (2012). Analysing the shadows: private tutoring as a descriptor of the education system of Geogia. International Education Studies, 5(6), 80-89.
 
[8]  Liu, J. (2012). Does cram schooling matter? Who goes to cram school? Evidence from Taiwan. International Jornal of Educational Development, 32(1), 42-56.
 
[9]  De Silva, W.A. (1994b).The present status of private tutoring in Sri Lanka.Economic Review (The People's Bank, Colombo) 20 (2, 3), 4-7, 20-24.
 
[10]  Aturupane, H., Glewwe , P., & Wisniewskiu, S. (2013). The impact of school quality, socio-economic factors and child health on students’ academic performance: Evidence from Sri Lankan primary schools. Education Economics, 21(1), 2-37.
 
[11]  Cole, R. (2016). Estimating the impact of private tutoring on academic perofrmance: primary students in Sri Lanka. Education economics, 1-16.
 
[12]  Park, H. and K. Lee. 2005. “Look on Korea Secondary Education through the Analysis of the PISA Study.” KEDI Journal of Educational Policy 2(2): 23-38.
 
[13]  Zhang, Y. (2013). Does private tutoring improve students’ National College Entrance Exam performance?- a case study from Jinan, China. Economics of education review, 32(1), 1-28.
 
[14]  Thongphat, N. (2012). A survey of Thai student performance in Mathematics and English: Evaluating the effect of supplementary tutoring. Procedia Economics and Finance, 2, 353-362.
 
[15]  Unal, H., Ozkan, E. M., Milton, S., Price, K., & Curva, F. (2010). The effect of private tutoring on performance in mathematics in Turkey: A comparison across occupational types. Procedia Social and Behavioural Science, 2, 5512-5517.
 
[16]  Byun, S.-y., & Park, H. (2012). The academic success of East Asian American youth: the role of shadow education. Sociology of education, 85(1), 40-60.
 
[17]  Berberoglu, G., & Tansel, A. (2014). Does private tutoring increase students' academic performance? Evidence from Turkey. Munich Personal RePEc Archive Paper No. 57370.
 
[18]  Kuan, P.-Y. (2011). Effects of cram schooling on mathematics performance: Evidence from junior high students in Taiwan. Comparative Education Review, 55(3), 342-368.
 
[19]  Ha, T. T., & Harpham, T. (2005). Primar education in Vietnam: extra classes and outcomes. International education journal, 6(5), 626-634.
 
[20]  Zhang & Yu Xie (2016). Family Background, Private Tutoring, and Children’s Educational Performance in Contemporary China, Chinese Sociological Review, 48:1, 64-82.
 
[21]  Çikrıkci Ö. (2017). The Effect of Self-efficacy on Student Achievement. In: Karadag E. (eds) The Factors Effecting Student Achievement. Springer, Cham
 
[22]  Williams, Keith, Jennifer Swift, Hefin Williams & Victor Van Daal (2017). Raising children’s self-efficacy through parental involvement in homework, Educational Research.
 
[23]  Chiu, M. M. (2010). Effects of inequality, family and school on Mathematics achievement: Country and student differences. Social Forces, 88(4), 1645-1676.
 
[24]  Heyneman , S. P., & Loxley, W. A. (1983). The effect of primary-school quality on academic achievement across twenty-nine high- and low-income countries. American Journal of Sociology, 88(6), 1162-1194.
 
[25]  Silva, H. N., & Banneheka, B. G. (2011). Factors associated with Mathematics results at GCE O/L examination. Vidyodaya Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences, 3, 23-43.
 
[26]  Hanushek, E. A. (1997). Assessing the effects of school resources on student performance: An update. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 19(2), 141-164.
 
[27]  Dearden, L., Ferri, J., & Meghir, C. (2002). The effect of school quality on edcational attainment and wages. The review of economics and statistics, 84(1), 1-20.
 
[28]  Emerson, L., Fear. J., Fox, S., and Sanders, E. (2012). Parental engagement in learning and schooling: Lessons from research. A report by the Australian Research Alliance for Children and Youth (ARACY) for the Family-School and Community Partnerships Bureau: Canberra.
 
[29]  Winter, B. (2013). Linear models and linear mixed effects models in R with linguistic applications. arXiv: 1308. 5499.
 
[30]  Song, Kyoung-Oh Park, Hyun-Jeong and Sang, Kyong-Ah (2013) , A cross-national analysis of the student- and school-level factors affecting the demand for private tutoring, Asia Pacific Educ. Rev. (2013) 14:125-139.
 
[31]  Brehm, W. C., Silova, I., & Mono, T. (2012). Hidden privatization of public education in Cambodia: the impact and implications of private tutoring. Education support program, 1-44.
 
[32]  Buchmann, C., Condron, D. J., & Roscigno, V. J. (2010). Shadow education: theory, aAnalysis and future directions: a rejoinder. Social forces, 89(2), 483-490.
 
[33]  De Silva, W.A. (1994a).Extra-school tutoring in the Asian context with special reference to Sri Lanka. Maharagama: Department of Educational Research, National Institute of Education.
 
[34]  Hettige, S. 2004. “From Social Justice to Market Competition: Impact of Globalization on Education in Sri Lanka.”Presented at the 18th European Conference on Modern South Asian Studies, July 6-9, 2004.
 
[35]  Hong, Song Chang & Park ,Yoon Soo (2012), An analysis of the relationship between self-study, private tutoring, and self-efficacy on self-regulated learning, KEDI journal of educational policy · 9:1 pp. 113-144.
 
[36]  Park, H., Byun, S.-y., & Kim, K.-k. (2011). Parental involvement and students' cognitive outcomes in Korea: focussing on private tutoring. Sociology of Education, 84(1), 3-22.
 
[37]  Sunday, Paul Adegoke, Modupe, M. Osokoya., (2015), Socio-Economic Background and Access to Internet as Correlates of Students Achievement in Agricultural Science, International Journal of Evaluation and Research in Education, 4(.1) 16-21.
 
[38]  O’Loughlin, J. (2004). Democratic values in a globalizing world: A multilevel analysis of geographic contexts. GeoJournal 60, 3-17.
 
[39]  Snijders, T. A., & Bosker, R. J. (2011). Multilevel analysis. An introduction to basic and advanced multilevel modelling. 2nd Ed, London: Sage.